The following is a listing of Transportation & Land Use related terminology and phraseology.

Terms by Acronym:

3C’s Process
(or: Three C's)

A federally-mandated (via the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1962) initiative, requiring a “Continuing, Cooperative, & Comprehensive” transportation planning process to be carried out by states, regions, and local communities.

3PL Provider
(or: Third-Party Logistics)

A third-party or outsourced freight management service provider, customizing shipping, warehousing, and administrative logistics activities.

4A’s of the Federal-Aid Highway Program
(or: Four A's)

The process of funding highways that are desginated as part of the Federal-Aid System; Authorization, Appropriation, Apportionment, Allocation

4PL Provider
(or: Fourth-Party Logistics)

Similar to a ‘Third-Party Logisitcs’ (3PL) service provider, a 4PL specializes in expertise in the design of ‘Supply Chain Management’ systems, but has no freight moving assets (e.g. warehouses or infrastructure) of its own.


National traveller information phone number designated by the FCC.


Underground damage prevention system (e.g. electric, natural gas, telephone, cable, etc.) information phone number designated by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). In Vermont, this service is known as “Dig Safe”.

Alternatives Analysis

A study which explores the effect of a project on the overall transportation system. Information included in an AA are costs, benefits, and impacts of potential changes to the transportation system.

Annual Average Daily Traffic

A key statistical indicator for roadway counts (i.e. traffic volume), known as the ‘Annual Average Daily Traffic’, or AADT, has been developed to represent the average amount of vehicular traffic in both directions of travel, passing on a given point of road, over a 24-hour period, on a typical day (i.e. seasonally adjusted) of a specified year.

American Association of Railroads

Association members include primary freight railroad companies in the U.S., Canada, and Mexico, as well as Amtrak.

American Association of Retired Persons (Formerly)

Established in 1958, AARP (formerly known as the American Association of Retired Persons, but is simply “AARP” today to reflect that membership is possible for non-retirees also) is a US-based non-governmental organization, non-profit, advocacy, and lobbying group for people age 50 and over.

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials

Publishes standards for transportation infrastructure for use throughout the U.S.


Congressional earmarked project, authorized in SAFETEA-LU intended to enhance Vermont’s rail infrastructure on the Western Vermont Corridor.

Asphalt Concrete

A macadam or petroleum based, flexible substance used in roadway surface construction (also known as “tarmac” – i.e. tar macadam).

Agency of Commerce & Community Development

The State agency that contains the departments of Economic Development, Tourism and Marketing, and Housing and Community Affairs.

American Community Survey

An ongoing nationwide survey that produces about U.S. population and housing. The ACS replaces the decennial census long form questionnaire (from the year 2000 and back), which collected this data every 10 years.

Americans with Disabilities Act

Federal legislation passed in 1990 that prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability.

Average Daily Traffic

The Average Daily Traffic (ADT) indicator of vehicular traffic flow (or bicycle & pedestrian traffic for that matter) is not a representation of the normally used “Annual Average Daily Traffic” (AADT). This is due to the lack of a full set of year-round data from which to develop seasonal coefficients necessary to calculate “AADT”. More accurately described, ADT is an estimate of general volume within the period of time counted only. For Bicycle & Pedestrian traffic counts obtained from infrared radiation sensor equipment, a common factor reducing the level of observation (i.e. undercounting) of data is lack of the pyroelectric sensor’s ability to detect adjacent-travelling bicyclists or pedestrians. In such case, it is good to do a simultaneous manual count for a few hours to verify the level of error.

American Factfinder

An online application intended to assist the public in dissemination and reporting of Census data.

American Institute of Certified Planners

A non-compulsory planning certification recognized in the United States.

Airport Information Management System

An annually updated database of airport project descriptions, costs, and scoring factors of capital projects negotiated with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).

Airport Improvement Program

FAA program that assists the development of public-use airports by providing funding for airport planning and development projects.

Airport Layout Plan

A scaled drawing of existing and proposed land and facilities necessary for the operation and development of the airport. The ALP shows boundaries and proposed additions to all areas owned or controlled by the airport operator for airport purposes, the location and nature of existing and proposed replacement airport facilities and structures, and the location on the airport of existing and proposed non aviation areas and improvements thereon.

Access Management

Techniques of Transportation infrastructure management intended to; reduce congestion and accident rates, lessen need for highway widening, conserve energy, and reduce pollution. Examples include; limiting entrance and exit of traffic on highways, use of medians and turn lanes, placement and timing of signals, as well as implementation of supportive local ordinances.

Agency of Natural Resources

A cabinet-level Vermont state agency that oversees environmental issues for the state and is responsible for SIP adoption (T3 VSA, Chapter 51).

Administrative Officer

A person officially designated by a municipality to administer and enforce a bylaw. See 24 VSA 4448.

American Planning Association

A nonprofit education and membership guild for professional planners.

Accessible Pedestrian Signal

A device that communicates information about pedestrian timing in nonvisual format such as audible tones, verbal messages, and/or vibrating surfaces

American Public Works Association

Chartered in 1937, the APWA is the international educational and professional association of public agencies, private sector companies, and individuals dedicated to improving public works goods and services.

American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

A $787 billion Recovery plan includes federal tax cuts and incentives, an expansion of unemployment benefits, and other spending on social entitlement programs. In addition, federal agencies are using Recovery funds to award contracts, grants, and loans around the country. The Recovery Act was intended to jumpstart the economy but many of the projects funded by Recovery money, especially those involving infrastructure improvements, are expected to contribute to economic growth for many years.

American Society of Civil Engineers

ASCE is the oldest national engineering guild in the United States, founded in 1852 at the offices of the Croton Aqueduct, New York City (originally formed as the American Society of Civil Engineers and Architects). ASCE is comprised of Regional Councils, Younger Member Councils, Sections, Branches, Student Chapters and Clubs, International Student Groups. ASCE posits its mission as “making this a better world by design”.

Association of State Floodplain Managers

The Association of State Floodplain Managers is an organization of professionals involved in floodplain management, flood hazard mitigation, the National Flood Insurance Program, and flood preparedness, warning and recovery. ASFPM has become a respected voice in floodplain management practice and policy in the United States because it represents the flood hazard specialists across many sectors and disciplines.

Advanced Traffic Management System

ITS applications designed to enhance traffic movement usually along transportation corridors.

Automatic Traffic Recorders

A pneumatic triggered device, utilizing rubber tubes installed upon a roadway to count, classify, and record speed data. ATRs are the tool used to capture Total Vehicle volume (used to calculate AADT), truck & bus data, 85th percentile & 10 MPH pace speed data, et al.

Automatic Vehicle Identification

A type of ITS, AVI generally signifies the recognition and recording of motor vehicles, usually automobiles, as they pass through facilities for automatic collection of tolls, thus eliminating stops.

Automatic Vehicle Location

A system which tracks real-time location of fleet vehicles to assist in dispatching.

Burlington International Airport

Burlington International Airport is the preeminent Airport in the State of Vermont, located in South Burlington and owned by the City of Burlington.

Best Management Practices

The methods, measures, designs, performance standards, maintenance procedures, and other management practices intended to prevent or reduce adverse impacts.

Blue Ribbon Commission on Innovative Finance

Initiated with a workshop at the University of Vermont campus in June 2007, the charge of the Commission on Innovative Finance is to provide a set of recommendations regarding viable innovative finance strategies to advance the regions’ transportation needs, including all modes (especially public transportation)as well as the necessary connections with our land use, economic, environmental and quality of life needs. The Commission has since drafted recommendations to be phased into policy over time.

Bus Rapid Transit

Fixed-route bus system operating on its own exclusive “Right of Way”.

Bureau of Transportation Statistics

The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) was established by the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991. BTS administers federal transportation data collection, analysis, and reporting resources.

Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

Federal legislation that sets allowable levels, known as NAAQS, for various pollutants. Where these standards are not attained, officials must take specified actions within a mandatory time frame or face sanctions such as loss of federal highway funds.

Calcium Carbonate

Gravel, dirt, or recycled asphalt roads have an increased durability when treated with Calcium Carbonate. Usually applied in a liquid or flaked solid form, it penetrates and coats the road aggregate mixture (i.e. various sized particles such as gravel or sand), binding it together to retain road density, compaction, and moisture level. This increases the roadway resistance to wear, reduces dust generation and erosion of the road surface.

Central Business District

Often the geographic center or ‘downtown’ section of a city, town, or village, typifying a concentration of commercial, government, residential, and mixed-use buildings or development

Circumferential Highway

A proposed limited access highway which traffic is routed around the urban core municipalities of the greater Burlington area, connecting VT State Route 127 in Colchester (to the north) to Interstate Route 89 in Williston (to the east).

Chittenden County Regional Planning Commission

Land use planning agency for Chittenden County, Vermont

Community Development Block Grant

A flexible federal program administrated by the Department of Housing and Community Affairs that subsidizes a wide range of community development and economic development activities. Beginning in 1974, the CDBG program is one of the longest continuously run programs at HUD. The CDBG program provides annual grants on a formula basis to 1209 general units of local government and States.

Commercial Drivers’ License

A CDL is required for those operating any type of vehicle with a Gross Vehicle Weight of 26,001 lbs. or greater (such as; tractor trailers, buses, and tow trucks).

Categorical Exclusion

Federal and State regulations (see; NEPA) require environmental reviews to be performed before expenditure of public funds can be approved for “major projects.” If a project does not meet the definition of “major project” then it may be eligible for what is called a Categorical Exclusion (CE). A CE is the absolute lowest level of environmental review possible for projects. For Vermont transportation projects, VTrans (The State DOT) is responsible for such designation.

Commodity Flow Survey

Primary source of national and state-level data on domestic freight shipments by American establishments in mining, manufacturing, wholesale, auxiliaries, and selected retail industries.

Capital Improvement Program

A multi-year plan, which identifies equipment, infrastructure, property improvements, or other tangible purchases, as well as their schedule and financing strategies.

Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality

A program authorized by the 1991 ISTEA provided billions of dollars in funding for surface transportation and other projects that contribute to air quality improvements and reduce traffic congestion. The CMAQ program has been improved and reauthorized in all subsequent federal transportation re-authorization bills.

Congestion Management Process

Formerly known as a Congestion Management System (CMS), CMP is a federally-mandated program within Metropolitan Planning Organizations to address and manage congestion.

Congestion Management System

A systematic process for managing congestion and enhancing mobility through alternative transportation strategies and timely information to the traveling public.

Compressed Natural Gas

Fuel for natural gas powered vehicles (primarily buses). Natural gas is comprised mostly of methane that is compressed (about 2,400 lbs. per square inch) and stored in high-pressure design containers.

Carbon Monoxide

A colorless, tasteless gas produced primarily by inefficient combustion of organic fuels in transportation and industrial activities. Overly high levels of CO reduces oxygen in the bloodstream, preventing normal respiration. CO emissions are regulated by the Agency of Natural Resources.


A shipping container capable of transport upon a rail flat car or truck flat bed trailer. Same as TOFC.

Consumer Price Index

Calculated monthly by the Federal Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), the Consumer Price Index (CPI) is a measure of the average change over time in the prices paid by consumers for a representative basket of goods and services. The CPI is used for a number of purposes, such as; An economic indicator of the effectiveness of economic policy, A method to adjust dollar values for economic inflation or deflation, et al.

Corner Sight Distance

The minimum distance a driver can see across an intersection corner in tandem with the length of time it takes the driver to safely traverse the intersection (past potential crossing vehicles) on to the roadway, and accelerating up to traffic flow speed.

Context-Sensitive Solutions

The process of CSS seeks to preserve aesthetics, historical context, and environmental resources in areas of proposed development, while maintaining efficiency and safety of the transportation system. It is a collaborative and interdisciplinary approach, involving a variety of stakeholders to develop facilities and infrastructure in harmony with their current physical setting.

Chittenden Solid Waste District

Chittenden Solid Waste District

Continuous Traffic Counters

Operated by VTrans, CTCs are permanently deployed traffic counters, which are capable of collecting traffic data for an entire year or longer.

Census Transportation Planning Package

CTPP is a demographic dataset intended for transportation planners, which is taken from decennial census. From 1970 to 2000, the CTPP and its predecessor (the UTPP) used data from the decennial census long form (i.e. a component questionaire of the census form sent to 1 in 6 households in Vermont). The CTPP is therefore a sample dataset of the total population. CTPP 2000 has three parts; Part 1. Residence end data summarizing worker and household characteristics, Part 2. Place of work data summarizing worker characteristics, Part 3. Journey-To-Work commuter flow data (which commuties workers live and work within).

Commercial Vehicle Operations

An Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) application for advanced technologies in commercial vehicle operations, including; Satelite Navigation & Real-time monitoring, Load-Tracking Systems, International Border Crossing Clearance, Commercial Vehicle Electronic Clearance or Screening, Automated Roadside Safety Inspection, Automated fuel & mileage reporting, Hazardous Material Planning and Incident Response, et al.

Champlain Water District

Champlain Water District

Continuous Welded Rail

Superior to traditional “jointed track”, where rails are bolted together, CWR provides superior strength for higher speed locomotives and requires less maintenance.

Design & Engineering

Design & Engineering


Design-Build (D-B) is an efficient method to complete transportation projects, where designer engineers and construction contractors are brought together under a single contract. This contrasts to the traditional “Design-Bid-Build” (D-B-B) approach where two different contracting efforts must be undertaken in sequentially; 1. Obtaining engineering services on a negotiated-price basis, and 2. Obtaining construction services on the lowest-responsible-bid price basis.

Double-Crossover Diamond Interchange

See “Diverging Diamond Interchange”. The DCD is distinguished from the conventional diamond interchange in that it combines left-turning traffic with through traffic. This is accomplished by having both left-turn and through vehicles cross over to the opposite sides of the roadway at the ramp terminals.

Diverging Diamond Interchange

A variation on a “Diamond Interchange”, a DDI (also known as the “Double Crossover” intersection) increases safety by reducing the number of potential conflict points of traffic. The DDI accommodates left-turning movements at a signalized, grade-separated interchanges of arterials while eliminating the need for left-turn signal phasing. On an arterial (i.e. a high-volume road), traffic crosses over to the left side of the roadway between the nodes of the interchange. Two-phase traffic signals are installed at roadway crossovers. Once vehicles are on the left side of the arterial roadway, they may turn left onto limited-access ramps without stopping or conflicting with through traffic.

Department of Environmental Conservation

The Vermont ANR department that administers most of ANR’s regulatory programs plus several voluntary pollution and waste reduction programs (including: air quality, environ-mental assistance, public facilities engineering, geology, environmental permits, solid waste, hazardous waste, surface water quality, water-shed planning, stormwater management, and drinking water supply).

Department of Housing & Community Affairs

The Vermont agency that provides planning technical assistance and oversees housing and community development programs. See 3 VSA 2472

Design Hour Volume

Commonly (but, not strictly) the 30th highest hourly traffic volume for a given year. DHV has been considered to be an optimal traffic volume estimation for designing future transportation infrastructure (e.g. intersection and roadway capacity analysis, bridge design, and geometric specifications, et al.) since the 1950 release of the Highway Capacity Manual (HCM).

Diesel Multiple Unit

Self-propelled railcar, powered by one or more diesel engines.

Department of Transportation

State agency responsible for coordination, operation, and safety of transportation facilities and services, including; highways, bridges, railroads, airports, etc.

Department of Public Works

Municipal entity responsible for repair and maintenance of streets, sewers, greenspace, and urban landscape. DPWs also designs and manage the construction of public facilities.

Demand Response

A transit mode comprised of passenger cars, vans, or small buses operating in response to calls from passengers or their agents to the transit operator, who then dispatches a vehicle to pick up the passengers and transport them to their destinations. A demand response (DR) operation is characterized by the following; 1. Vehicles do not operate over a fixed route or on a fixed schedule except on a temporary basis to satisfy a special need, 2. Vehicles may be dispatched to pick up several passengers at different pick-up points before taking them to their respective destinations and may even be interrupted en route to these destinations to pick up other passengers.

Development Review Board

Development Review Boards are quasi-judicial, citizen volunteer bodies created under Vermont Statute 24 VSA Chapter 117, intended to interpret and uphold zoning ordinances of their municipality. A municipality may create a DRB to consolidate the functions of a Zoning Board of Adjustment and the subdivision review functions of a Planning Commission (See 24 VSA 4460).

Decision-Support System

Computer assessment tool that examines the relationships between land use and transportation.

District Transportation Administrator

Administrative supervisor of regional transportation services or infrastructure.

Deighton Total Infrastructure Management System

A proprietary Pavement Management System (PMS) used by the Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTrans).

Dwelling Unit

One or more rooms, intended to be occupied by a household as separate living quarters containing cooking, sleeping, and sanitary facilities.

Environmental Assessment

The purpose of an EA is to determine if there is sufficient evidence for a proposed project to require a more comprehensive Environmental Impact Study (EIS). Often an EA is a sufficient environmental document in itself when impacts of a project minor or can be mitigated.

Essential Air Services

Federal subsidy program for scheduled air services to rural communities

Eastern Border Transportation Coalition

Organization providing a cross-border issue forum for each U.S. state, Canadian province, and border service agency.

Economic Development Association

The federal office responsible for the provision of federal economic development assistance to economically depressed areas, especially to areas of high unemployment.

Environmental Impact Statement

Document that studies all likely impacts resulting from major federally-assisted programs. Impacts include those on the natural environment, economy, society, and the built (existing) environment of historical and aesthetic significance.

Environmental Justice

The fair treatment of people of all races, cultures, and income with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, programs and policies.

Environmental Protection Agency

The federal regulatory agency responsible for administering and enforcing environmental laws, including the Clean Air Act.

Equivalent Single Axle Load

Equivalent 18-kip Single Axle Load. A basic premise of truck weight enforcement is that there is a resulting reduction in the rate of pavement deterioration. ESAL measures Truck traffic loading expressed as the number of equivalent 18,000 lb (80 kN) single axle loads.

Electronic Toll & Traffic Management

ETTM systems equip vehicles with electronic tags (or transponders) that communicate with roadside sensors to provide automatic vehicle identification that allows for toll collection at the toll booth, and general vehicle monitoring and data gathering beyond the toll plaza. These systems the potential to reduce congestion, improve safety, energy efficiency, air quality, and to enhance economic productivity at a cost significantly less than additional road construction.

Federal Aviation Administration

U.S. Department of Transportation agency responsible for aviation related programs.

Freight Analysis Framework

Federal freight transportation data integration project, obtaining data from various sources to estimate and forecast freight activity among states, regions, and major international gateways.

Federal-Aid Interstate

Originally authorized by the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956, a system for the allocation of funds by formula was developed for Interstates, which was based the most heavily travelled routes of the Federal-Aid Primary system. The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1973, which required the use of “Functional Highway Classification” to update and modify the Federal-aid highway systems by July 1, 1976 replaced this classification scheme.

Federal-Aid Primary

Originally authorized by the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1944, a system for the allocation of funds by formula was developed based on area, population, and route miles. The Federal-Aid Primary system was considered the primary travelled roads. The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1973, which required the use of “Functional Highway Classification” to update and modify the Federal-aid highway systems by July 1, 1976 replaced this classification scheme.

Floor Area Ratio

A measurement used to determine the building volume permitted on a particular lot that equals the floor area of all of the buildings on a lot divided by the total land area of the lot. For example, an FAR of 3.0 applied to a 20,000 square foot lot would permit a building with up to 60,000 square feet of floor area. The owner also could construct a building with up four 15,000 square foot floors, five 12,000 square foot floors, six 10,000 square foot floors, and so on. The community’s building height regulations would limit how tall the building could be.

Fatality Analysis Reporting System

FARS is a federal census of crashes involving any motor vehicle on a trafficway, but only in fatal crashes. It is generally considered to be the most reliable national crash database. A large truck is defined in the FARS as a truck with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of more than 10,000 pounds. A bus is defined in the FARS as a large motor vehicle used to carry more than 10 passengers, including school buses, inter-city buses, and transit buses. FARS is maintained by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA).

Federal-Aid Secondary

Originally authorized by the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1944, a system for the allocation of funds by formula was developed based on area, population, and route miles. The Federal-Aid Secondary system was considered the “Farm-to-Market” roads. The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1973, which required the use of “Functional Highway Classification” to update and modify the Federal-aid highway systems by July 1, 1976 replaced this classification scheme.

Federal-Aid Urban

Those roads within Urbanized Areas (UA) that are designated upon the Federal-Aid System (FAS), and are functionally classed as; 11 (Urban Interstate), 12 (Urban Other Freeway or Expressway), 14 (Urban Other Principal Arterial), 16 (Urban Minor Arterial), or 17 (Urban Collector).

Form-Based Code

A departure from the 20th century standard planning practice of developing municipal zoning codes based upon separation of land use. Form-based codes (FBC) facilitate a compatible building environment for public spaces by using physical form as the primary criterion behind a municipality’s zoning code. According to the Form-Based Codes Institute (FBCI); ‘Form-based codes address the relationship between building facades and the public realm, the form and mass of buildings in relation to one another, and the scale and types of streets and blocks. The regulations and standards in form-based codes are presented in both words and clearly drawn diagrams and other visuals. They are keyed to a regulating plan that designates the appropriate form and scale (and therefore, character) of development, rather than only distinctions in land-use types.’

Fixed-Based Operator

Provider of aviation support services at airports, such as; fueling, line, paint, avionics, aircraft maintenance, hangar, catering, and other ground and/or logistical services.

Functional Classification

A Federal Highway Administration road designation scheme for rural, small urban, and urbanized areas. Functional classification defines the role that any particular road or street should play in servicing the flow of trips through a highway network. Standards for highway classification were developed during 1969-1971 using criteria and procedures specified in the 1968 National Highway Functional Classification Study Manual. The scheme may be expressed as: 1 = Rural Interstate, 2 = Rural Principle Arterial, 6 = Rural Minor Arterial, 7 = Rural Major Collector, 8 = Rural Minor Collector, 9 = Rural Local Access, 11 = Urban Interstate, 12 = Urban Other Freeway or Expressway, 14 = Urban Other Principal Arterial, 16 = Urban Minor Arterial, 17 = Urban Collector, 19 = Urban Local Access.

Forty-Foot Equivalent Unit
(or: 40-Foot Equivalent Unit)

A Forty-Foot Equivalent Unit is used to express shipping or capacity volume of freight. Using the ISO standard of double the 20-foot shipping container (i.e. TEU – Twenty-Foot Equivalent Unit) as a means of measurement, FEUs further summarise a general sense of freight traffic moving through major shipping ports commonly reported by government or industry. A FEU is an approximate measure of two containerized cargo units (20 ft. long * 8 ft. wide container), which does not account for container height. An FEU is generally the amount of freight carried by a standard 18-wheel tractor-trailer hauling a 48′ trailer.

Fixed Guideway

A public transportation facility, which utilizes and occupies a separate right-of-way (ROW), or rail line, for the exclusive use of mass transportation and other high occupancy vehicles, or uses a fixed catenary system and a right of way usable by other forms of transportation. This term may include modes such as; rapid rail, light rail, commuter rail, automated guideway transit, people movers, ferry boat service, and fixed-guideway facilities for buses (such as bus rapid transit – BRT) and other high occupancy vehicles.

Federal Highway Administration

U.S. Department of Transportation agency responsible for highways.

Fog Line

Reflective white lines painted along the shoulder of a road demarking the legally extent a motor vehicle is allowed to operate.

Finding of No Significant Impact

If a “Finding of No Significant Impact” is concluded from an Environmental Assessment, a full EIS would not be required for the project.

Field of View

Field of View

Department of Forest Parks & Recreation

The Vermont ANR department that operates the State Parks system, manages State forests and natural areas, and provides assistance in the areas of forestry, recreation, and conservation education.

Federal Railroad Administration

U.S. Department of Transportation agency responsible for railroad programs.

Federal Transit Administration

U.S. Department of Transportation agency that administers federal funding to support a variety of locally planned, constructed, and operated public transportation systems throughout the U.S., including buses, subways, light rail, commuter rail, streetcars, monorail, passenger ferry boats, inclined railways, and people movers.

Department of Fish & Wildlife

The Vermont ANR department that manages Vermont’s fisheries and wildlife resources, enforces the state’s hunting and fishing laws, and studies and inventories non-game wildlife species and natural communities.

Grant Anticipation Revenue Vehicles (Bonds)

GARVEE Bonds are funding mechanisms that enable governmental entities to finance infrastructure or transit projects based on anticipated future revenues, which are then used to repay outstanding debt. A state may use future federal-aid funding obligations to reimburse the retirement of principal loans, interest charges, issuance, insurance, and other associated costs related to the sale of eligible debt-financing instruments.

Greater Burlington Industrial Corporation

The non-profit Regional Development Corporation that has the mission of attracting, retaining, and expanding environmentally sensitive, high-paying jobs in the Champlain Valley and initiating and supporting advocacy, education, and collaborative programs in promoting its vision.

Global Climate Change

Global Climate Change

Gross Domestic Product

GDP is a statistic estimating total market value of goods and services produced by labor and property in a given geographical area, within a given year. GDP replaces the Gross National Product (GNP) indicator as the primary measure of U.S. production in 1991.

Greenhouse Gases

Identified by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), anthropogenic greenhouse gases are recognized by the international scientific community as having the potential to bring about climate change. Such gases include; Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Methane (CH4), Nitrous Oxide (NOX), Carbon Tetrafluoride, Hexafluoromethanem, Sulfur Hexafluoride, and others.

Geographic Information Systems

A software system which assists in the development, storage, analysis, and display of locational or spatial information.

Geographic Information Systems for Transportation

Refers to the principles and applications of applying geographic information technologies to transportation problems (Miller and Shaw, 2001).

Global Positioning System

A navigation system utilising satellites to provide a GPS-receiver on Earth with accurate coordinates.

Gross Vehicle Weight

Gross Vehicle Weight

High Accident Location

A location on the federal-aid highway system that has experienced a minimum of five accidents over a five-year period and has an Actual Rate to Critical Rate Ratio (ARCR) of 1 or greater. The list of HALs is maintained by the Vermont Agency of Transportation – Highway Research Section.

High-Intensity Activated Crosswalk

A pedestrian-activated beacon located on the roadside and on mast arms over major approaches to an intersection. The HAWK head consists of two red lenses over a single yellow lens. It displays a red indication to drivers when activated, which creates a gap for pedestrians to use to cross a major roadway.

Hazardous Material

Classified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), transport of HAZMAT is regulated by the U.S. Department of Transportation.


Hydrocarbons are a Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) that is released into the atmosphere because of incomplete combustion of petroleum fuels or by their evaporation. The strong odor of diesel fuel is associated with HC. The EPA states that 47% of Hydrocarbon emissions in our atmosphere can be attributed to vehicles. Hydrocarbons combined with Nitrogen Oxides, and sunlight form Ozone (O3).

Highway Capacity Manual

Published by the Transportation Research Board (TRB), the HCM outlines fundamental information and computational techniques on the quality of service and capacity of highway facilities.

High Occupancy Vehicle

Vehicle carrying two or more people (i.e. a carpool). Roads may have lanes solely for HOV use, such as carpools, vanpools, and buses.

Highway Performance Monitoring System

A GIS-based national highway information system that includes data on the extent, condition, performance, use, and operating characteristics of US highways.

High Risk Rural Roads Program

A federal safety and funding provision addressing the high fatality and incapacitating injury rate, which occurs on rural roads (nationally, about 60% occur on Rural Major & Minor Collectors, as well as Rural Local Access roads).

Highway Safety Improvement Program

Federal program assisting states to achieve a significant reduction in traffic fatalities and serious injuries on all public roads through the implementation of infrastructure-related highway safety improvements.

Highway Trust Fund

A financing mechanism established under federal law to account for tax receipts (primarily from motor fuel taxes) collected by the federal government and dedicated to surface transportation projects.

Housing Unit

One or more rooms, intended to be occupied by a household as separate living quarters containing cooking, sleeping, and sanitary facilities.

United States Department of Housing & Urban Development

U.S. Housing & Urban Development

Inscribed Circle Diameter

Diameter of a Rotary, Roundabout, or Circulator intersection. Generally speaking, a smaller ICD of a modern roundabout keeps the traffic speed lower, and hence safer than the larger ICD’s commonly found with rotaries or traffic circles.

Innovative Finance

A broadly defined term that encompasses a combination of specially designed techniques to supplement traditional federal financing methods for transportation-related projects. Often in the form of “Public-Private Partnerships”, locally authorized “Tax-Increment Financing”, et al., Innovative Finance for transportation seeks to; 1. Maximize the ability of states and other project sponsors to leverage Federal capital for needed investment in the nation’s transportation system; 2. More effectively utilize existing funds; 3. Move projects into construction more quickly than under traditional financing mechanisms; and 4. Make possible major transportation investments that might not otherwise receive financing.

Interstate Highway System

A subsystem of the NHS, the Interstate Highway System is also named the “Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways”. The concept of the IHS was first formally studied under mandate by the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1938, and was first authorized construction funds under the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1952. It was not until the enactment of the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956, championed by President Eisenhower, that the Highway Trust Fund was established to finance construction of the entire network for the purpose of facilitating private and commercial transportation, and providing transportation routes for military supplies and troop deployments in case of an emergency or foreign invasion.

Integrated Noise Model

A computer model that evaluates aircraft noise impacts in the vicinity of airports for environmental assessments and impact statements. The INM has many analytical uses, such as: 1. Assessing current aircraft noise impacts around a given airport or heliport, 2. Assessing changes in noise impact resulting from new or extended runways or runway configurations, 3. Assessing changes in noise impact resulting from new traffic demand and fleet mix, 4. Evaluating noise impacts from new operational procedures, 5. Evaluating noise impacts from aircraft operations in and around National Parks.

International Roughness Index

A pavement condition profiling indicator (used by HPMS, et al.) reflecting ride smoothness. IRI data is captured by a device mounted on a vehicle measuring suspension motion per distance travelled, and may be expressed in inches/mile (in/mi) or meters/kilometer (m/km). An IRI of 0m/km means that a roadway is perfectly smooth. And where there is no maximum for this indicator, it is generally accepted that an IRI of 8m/km is almost impassible unless vehicle speeds are greatly reduced.

Intersection Sight Distance

The AASHTO “Green Book” reference to the “Line of Sight” distance between a vehicle travelling on a roadway and a vehicle attempting to enter the roadway from an intersection or driveway.

International Organization for Standardization

Based in Geneva, Switzerland, ISO is a non-governmental organization (NGO) coordinating the publication and development of a host of International Standards for government, private-sectors. Such standards apply to equipment specifications, data transfer standards, monitoring standards, et al. The acronym “ISO” is derived from the Greek ‘isos’ (meaning “equal”). Hence “ISO” is applicable to any country or language as a mark of an international standard.

Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991

The purpose of this act was to develop a ‘National Intermodal Transportation System that is economically efficient, environmentally sound, provides the foundation for the Nation to compete in the global economy and will move people and goods in an energy efficient manner.’ This act established the provision that MPO’s undertake development of a Transportation Improvement Program (TIP), a long-range plan, and an annual work program. It also required for states; a statewide planning process, a statewide transportation plan, and a statewide transportation improvement program (STIP).

Institute of Transportation Engineers

Founded in 1930, the Institute of Transportation Engineers is an international educational and scientific association of transportation professionals who are responsible for meeting mobility and safety needs. ITE facilitates the application of technology and scientific principles to research, planning, functional design, implementation, operation, policy development and management for any mode of ground transportation. ITE further promotes professional development of its members, supports and encourages education, stimulates research, develops public awareness programs and serves as a conduit for the exchange of professional information.

Intelligent Transportation Systems

Technology used to improve the efficiency of transportation systems.

Job Access/Reverse Commute

Transit improvement plan designed to meet the work-related transportation needs of low-income residents.


A method of inventory control where products are delivered to stores or assembly lines only when needed to minimize the high cost of maintaining local inventory and warehousing. The effects on freight demand are to; increase the number of individual shipments, decrease their length of haul and costs, and increase the reliability of on-time delivery.

Journey-To-Work Data

Worker/Commuter home-based work trip sample data collected by the U.S. Census Bureau within the long form since 1960.

Land-Based Classification Standards

American Planning Association (APA) standardised model used to categorise land use based on its charcteristics. Such characteristics are defined as; Activity, Function, Structure, Site Development Character, and Ownership Type.


Refering to “Containers” or ISO multimodal shipping Containers; Less-Than-Container-Load.

Lake Champlain Regional Chamber of Commerce

Lake Champlain Regional Chamber of Commerce

Longer Combination Vehicles

Vehicles with two or more trailer units that have gross weights of more than 80,000 pounds. LCVs typically include four vehicle types: 1. “ROCKY MOUNTAIN DOUBLE” – (105,000 lbs./Len. 95’/3 Trailers: 1 = 48′, 2 = 28′), 2. “TURNPIKE DOUBLE” – (Wt. 135,000 lbs./Len. 120’/2 Trailers of 48′), 3. “TRIPLE TRAILER” – (Wt. 110,000 lbs./Len. 110’/3 Trailers of 28′), 4. “STAA DOUBLE (WESTERN DOUBLE)” – (Wt. ?/Len. 65’/2 Trailers of 28′).

Light Duty Vehicle

Passenger cars, pick-up trucks, vans, or light-duty trucks with a gross vehicle weight rating of 8,500 lbs. or less, plus an adjusted loaded vehicle weight of 5,751 lbs. or less

Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics

Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics (LEHD) is an innovative program within the U.S. Census Bureau using modern statistical and computing techniques to combine federal and state administrative data on employers and employees to derive their commuting patterns. The process generalizes datasets to protect the confidentiality of people and firms that provide information. This data is often useful in determining commuter-sheds in tandem with the Census Transportation Planning Package (CTPP).

Local Emergency Planning Committee

A committee under the Chittenden County Regional Planning Commission (CCRPC), LEPC function is to provide resources and guidance to Chittenden County communities through education, coordination and assistance in hazmat planning, as well as to assure public health and safety.

Land Evaluation & Site Assessment

Developed by the Soil Conservation Service, a LESA establishes the process set out in 6 VSA 8 for the identification of agricultural lands.

Low Emission Vehicle

A vehicle certified to meet low emission standards set by the California Air Resources Board. These regulations are stricter than the US national “Tier” regulations.

Liquefied Natural Gas

A natural gas fuel comprised mainly of methane, cooled to below its boiling point of -260 degrees Fahrenheit, where it becomes a liquid. LNG is stored at very low temperatures within a special low-pressurized vacuum container. LNG does not burn in liquid form.

Level of Service

A system of indicating delay at signalized intersections, which is graded on a letter scale from A to F, generally outlined by the HCM as: A <= 10 sec, B = 10-20 sec, C = 20-35 sec, D = 35-55 sec, E = 55-80 sec, F > 80sec.

Linear Reference System

A major component of the Highway Performance Monitoring System (HPMS) program that assigns a separate link and node GIS database for all National Highway System (NHS) Routes, Rural & Urban Principal Arterial roads, and Rural Minor Arterial roads.

Light Rail Transit

Generally applies to single- or double-car rail transport that uses mostly mixed, but not usually grade-separated, rights-of-way. LRT is an intermediate-capacity, intermediate-speed mode with service capabilities between heavy rail transit and local bus. Other forms and terms of LRT include; electric trolleys, streetcars, or tramways.

Long Range Transportation Plan

A long-range document required by federal law that identifies facilities and programs that should function as an integrated metropolitan transportation system and includes a financial plan that demonstrates how the long-range plan can be implemented. Federal requirement for MPOs and Agencies of Transportation to undertake every five years and looks out 20-25 years.

Local Transportation Assistance Program

Federally funded program to enable local governments to improve their roads and bridges by providing training and information.

Local Transportation Facilities

Also known as “Local Enhancements”, LTF is a Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTrans) program established to assist local governments with project implementation for; Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities, Safe Routes to School Projects, Park-n-Rides, Scenic Byways and other “Local” Projects.

Less-Than-Truckload Carrier

LTL carriers haul general freight in less than a full truckload quantity, often in a short-haul or regional move. “For-hire” LTL’s often combine freight from multiple shippers and operate local pickup and delivery service in urban areas on regular routes (known as line-haul relays, or terminal to terminal service). “Private” LTL’s typically handle short-haul moves between warehouses and retailers as an in-house service.

Land Use Allocation Module

The Land Use Allocation Module (LUAM) has been used by CCMPO & CCRPC to forecast future land use patterns. The primary data inputs are; housing & employment by type of Traffic Analysis Zone (TAZ) in the model, physical constrains data, and zoning data.

Magnetic Levitation

High-Speed fixed-guideway transportation systems, which utilize magnetic levitation or suspension (which counteracts gravity) instead of conventional rail infrastructure.

Maritime Administration

The Maritime Administration is the agency within the U.S. Department of Transportation dealing with waterborne transportation. MARAD is responsible for waterborne transportation, the U.S. merchant marine, and other areas, such as; ships, shipping, shipbuilding, port operations, vessel operations, national security, environment, and safety.

Minor Civil Division

A U.S. Census Bureau designated Minor Civil Division (MCD) is a legally specified (by State law) county governmental or administrative subdivision (e.g. township, gore, grant, unincorporated place, et al.). There states where MCDs do not exist. In such case the Census Bureau, in cooperation with state and local officials, delineates county subdivisions known as Census County Divisions (CCD). In some situations, the Census Bureau must complete the coverage of subcounty units by creating additional entities called unorganized territories (UTs) that it treats as being statistically equivalent to MCDs.

Multi-Jurisdictional All-Hazards Mitigation Plan

Hazard Mitigation is a sustained effort to permanently reduce or eliminate long-term risks to people and property from the effects of reasonably predictable hazards. The purposes of this plan are to: 1. Identify specific natural, technological and societal hazards that impact the communities of Chittenden County; 2. Prioritize hazards for mitigation planning; 3. Recommend regional level goals and strategies to reduce any losses from those hazards; and 4. Establish a coordinated process to implement the plan, taking advantage of a wide range of resources.


A milemarker (i.e. milepost) is a reflective green paddle sign placed alongside highways indicating total mileage from an original control point. For Interstates, the zero milemarker originates at the southernmost, or the westernmost end of the route. However, for other routes, the location of the zero milemarker varies. The Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTrans) manages their milemarkers from South to North, and West to East. This is reflected in their distributed GIS data.

Measures of Effectiveness

Indicators or test results reflecting degree of attainment for specific objectives.

Memorandum of Understanding

A document providing specific duties and responsibilities to be assumed by two or more parties in pursuit of a project or goal.

Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator

EPA’s Office of Transportation and Air Quality (OTAQ) is developing the “MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator” (MOVES). The successor to MOBILE6, this more recent emission modeling system estimates emissions for on-road and nonroad mobile sources, covers a broader range of pollutants, and allows multiple scale analysis from fine-scale analysis to national inventory estimation. MOVES is planned to serve as the replacement for MOBILE6 and NONROAD for all official analyses associated with regulatory development, compliance with statutory requirements, and national/regional inventory projections.


A milepost (i.e. milemarker) is a reflective green paddle sign placed alongside highways indicating total mileage from an original control point. For Interstates, the zero milepost originates at the southernmost, or the westernmost end of the route. However, for other routes, the location of the zero milepost varies. The Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTrans) manages their mileposts from South to North, and West to East. This is reflected in their distributed GIS data.

Metropolitan Planning Area

A location designated by the Chittenden County Regional Plan that is recommended to be a regional or sub-regional center for jobs, housing and community facilities that have an urbanized character.

Municipal Planning Grant

The Municipal Planning Grant (MPG) program is a state-funded program (administered by the Department of Economic, Housing and Community Development) intended to support Vermont towns with; technical assistance for town planning, implementation of plans and ordinances, encouragement of citizen participation and education, and innovative demonstration planning projects. No matching funds are required for this program.

Metropolitan Planning Organization

Federally established organization responsible for a cooperative, continuous, and comprehensive framework to make transportation investment decisions within their designated area.

Municipal Separate Stormwater Sewer System

Roads with drainage systems, municipal streets, catchbasins, curbs, gutters, ditches, man-made channels, or storm drains, which are owned by a public body and are designed to collect or convey stormwater. MS4 does not include infrastructure that is a combined sewer or part of a Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTW) as defined by 40 CFR 122.2.

Metropolitan Statistical Area

Defined by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget, an MSA is a county or a group of contiguous counties that contain at least one city of 50,000 inhabitants or more, or 2) An urbanized area of at least 50,000 inhabitants and a total MSA population of at least 100,000 (75,000 in New England). The contiguous counties are included in an MSA if, according to certain criteria, they are essentially metropolitan in character and are socially and economically integrated with the central city. In New England, MSAs consist of towns and cities rather than counties.

Metropolitan Transportation Plan

A federally-mandated long-range plan for transportation development and investment based on the goals in the CCMPO Vision Statement.

Metropolitan Transportation System

The multimodal network of highways, arterial and collector roadways, transit services, rail lines, Burlington International Airport, and other intermodal facilities critical to the movement of people and goods in Chittenden County.

Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices

Published by Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), this manual defines the standards used by road managers nationwide to install and maintain traffic control devices (signage, pavement markings, traffic signals, etc.) on all streets and highways.

National Ambient Air Quality Standards

Clean Air Act standards for widespread pollutants from numerous and diverse sources considered harmful to public health and the environment.

National Association of Development Organizations

Formed in 1967, NADO is an advocacy organization for federal programs and policies, which promote regional strategies and address local economic development needs.

National Association of Regional Councils

Formed in 1967, NARC is an advocacy organization serving as a national forum for regionalism. Member organizations are comprised of Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPO), Regional Planning Agencies (RPA/RPC), Council of Governments (COG), etc., which work on transportation, community, economic development, and environmental quality issues.

National Cooperative Highway Research Program

A research program of the Transportation Research Board (TRB) that develops near-term, practical solutions to problems facing transportation planning agencies.

New England Central Railroad

A privately operated railroad company.

Noise Exposure Maps

Scaled geographic depictions of an airport, its noise contours, and surrounding land use which are legally required to be made available to the public (prepared under 14 CFR part 150).

National Environmental Policy Act

Federal law requiring federal agencies to integrate environmental values into their decision making processes by considering the environmental impacts of their proposed actions and reasonable alternatives to those actions.

Neighborhood Electric Vehicles

NEVs are battery powered vehicles that are legally limited to roads with posted speed limits of 35 miles per hour or less on Vermont roads, generally have a maximum loaded weight of 3,000 lbs.

Natural Gas Vehicle

NGV’s use Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)- composed of Methane, or a less common Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) as a cleaner alternative to petroleum-based fossil fuels.

National Highway Institute

NHI is the training and education arm of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), established by Congress in 1970.

National Highway System

As of 2008, the NHS is comprised of about 160,000 miles (256,000 kilometers) of roadway important to the nation’s economy, defense, and mobility. The National Highway System (NHS) includes the Interstate Highway System as well as other roads important to the nation’s economy, defense, and mobility. The NHS was developed by the Department of Transportation (DOT) in cooperation with the states, local officials, and metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs).

National Highway System Program

The program provides funding for improvements to rural and urban roads that are part of the NHS, including the Interstate System and designated connections to major intermodal terminals. Under certain circumstances, NHS funds may also be used to fund transit improvements in NHS corridors.

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

NHTSA was established in 1970 by the Highway Safety Act of 1970. Its mission is to; “Save lives, prevent injuries and reduce economic costs due to road traffic crashes, through education, research, safety standards and enforcement activity.”

Notice of Intent

A notice informing the public that an Environmental Impact Statement will be undertaken for a project.

Nitrogren Oxides

Precursor emission that forms from high-temperature combustion processes. React with VOCs in the presence of heat and sunlight to form ozone.

Natural Resources Board

The Natural Resources Board (NRB) was created by Act 115 of the Vermont General Assembly to succeed the Environmental and Water Resources Boards on February 1, 2005. The NRB is a nine member board which is divided into two panels, the Land Use Panel and the Water Resources Panel. Each panel has five members, including the NRB Chair.

Nuclear Regulatory Commission

U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

Nonmotorized Transportation Pilot Program

SAFEATEA-LU Section 1807 established the NTPP. This program is providing 25 million dollars each to four communities–Columbia, MO; Marin County, CA; Minneapolis Area, MN; Sheboygan County, WI–to demonstrate how improved walking and bicycling networks can increase rates of walking and bicycling.

Origin/Destination Study

A study of where person or vehicle trips begin and end. Such a study may also include trip purposes and frequencies.


A colorless gas with a sweet odor that is not a direct emission from transportation sources, but is formed when VOCs and NOx from car exhausts and some industrial emissions combine in the presence of sunlight. Ground-level ozone is associated with smog conditions and initiates damage to lungs, trees, crops and materials. Requlated by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA).

Official Business Directional Sign

An official Vermont Agency of Transportation designated business directional sign, which includes a legal business name, logo, directional arrow, and mileage from the business. Black OBDS signs indicate businesses, where brown OBDS signs represent recreational areas (brown signs requiring FHWA approval to use). Towns are assessed an installation fee and an annual maintenance fee for each sign.

Park & Ride Facility

A parking lot designated by the state or a municipality for the purpose of commuter travel, allowing for a mode shift from automobile to transit or carpool. According to the 2004 CCMPO Park & Ride Prioritization Plan, there is a distinction between an “Intercept” (or “Satellite”) lot and a “Park & Ride” lot. A Park & Ride lot’s purpose is for car and vanpooling with potential for low frequency shuttle or transit service. It may serve multiple trip destinations. It is characterized by its suburban or rural location, a surface lot (v.s. parking structure), and low to medium capacity. The private car is the dominant method of trip collection and distribution. These facilities are implemented through public funding. The purpose of an “Intercept Lot” is to provide a less expensive parking alternative to on-site locations within activity centers or the urban core area and reduce SOV use in activity centers. These facilities may capture outgoing as well as incoming activity center traffic and serve as a transfer point from car to shuttle or transit. Characteristics include an urban/activity area fringe location, high capacity, surface or structured parking, and high frequency shuttle/transit connections to activity centers. Implementation funding is likely to come from Congressional earmarks and/or public private ventures.

Planning Commission

The official body that prepares a Comprehensive Plan. This Plan uses the term to mean the Chittenden County Regional Planning Commission. See 24 VSA 4341 to 4346. A municipal planning commission is authorized also to prepare bylaws and studies for adoption by the Legislative Body and to perform other functions. See 24 VSA 4321 to 4328, 4384, 4460, and 4463.

Portland Cement Concrete

Portland Cement Concrete is a durable, but complex substance commonly refered to as “concrete”.

Passenger Car Equivalents

Traffic engineering/modelling practice of converting Trucks, Buses and RV’s to cars for the purpose of Capacity or Level of Service (LOS) analyses. More information on this topic may be found in the Highway Capacity Manual (HCM).

Pavement Condition Index

A rating from 0-100 (with a corresponding qualitative rating from ‘Failed’ to ‘Good’), reflecting the condition or level of wear of pavement along a road segment.

Project Development Process

Otherwise known as “Scoping”, the Project Development life-cycle of a transportation project generally has several steps: 1. Local Concerns Meeting. 2. Data Collection. 3. Alternatives Development. 4. Alternatives Presentation Meeting. 5. Alternatives Selection. 6. Report Preparation. 7. Report Acceptance by the State DOT (i.e. VTrans) Project Definition Team (PDT).

Property Damage Only

A reportable crash, which does not result in any fatalities or noteworthy injuries.

Purchase of Development Rights

The acquisition of development rights by a municipality to carry out the purposes of Chapter 117. See 24 VSA 4431.

Project Definition Team

Comprised of various VTrans department heads who review transportation projects.

Preliminary Engineering

Project development phase in which project design is determined.

Pedestrian Environmental Factor

In traffic modeling, the PEF identifies the pedestrian and bicycle-friendly parts of the transportation network.

Passenger Facility Charge

A surcharge added to the price of an airfare and used for capital improvements at airports.

Peak Hour Factor

PHF is used to evaluate roadway capacity. It is the ratio of of total hourly volume to the maximum 15 minute rate of flow within the hour, that is; PHF = Hourly Volume / Peak Rate of Vehicle Flow (within the hour).

Planning Funds

Funds intended for planning purposes only. Such funds are intended to be exclusive of design or engineering of transporation projects, as well as operations or right-of-way acquisitions. Planning funds may however, be used for project scoping.

Passenger Miles Traveled

1. AIR MODE: One passenger transported 1 mile; passenger-miles for one inter-airport flight are calculated by multiplying aircraft miles flow by the number of passengers carried on the flight. The total passenger-miles for all flights is the sum of passenger-miles for all inter-airport flights… 2. AUTO MODE: One passenger traveling 1 mile; e.g., one car transporting two passengers 4 miles results in 8 passenger-miles… 3. TRANSIT MODE: The total number of miles traveled by transit passengers; e.g., one bus transporting five passengers 3 miles results in 15 passenger-miles.

Parts per Million

A measure of air pollutant concentrations.

Public-Private Partnerships

Contractual arrangements between government agencies and private-sector entities to finance transportation projects.

Planned Residential Development

A type of Planned Unit Development that provides for a mixture of housing types or densities and typically involves Cluster Development.

Perception-Reaction Time

PRT outlines four distinct processes a driver must perform for roadway navigation; Detection, Identification, Decision, & Response. Where PRT varies widely among drivers, AASHTO suggests it to be 2.5 seconds (where 90% of drivers will have a PRT as fast as, or faster than 2.5 seconds). ITE suggests it is 1.0 seconds (where 85% of drivers would have as an aspect of reacting to signal timing, but it would be considerably higher for a braking response upon a highway). Other factors that influence a PRT are; age, fatigue, complexity of reaction, and alcohol.

Personal Rapid Transit

An energy-efficient, on-demand, guided route, mass-transit system, utilizing small, independent vehicles (e.g. Podcars).

Public Safety Answering Pont

A facility that receives emergency calls (such as E-911) and dispatches public safety services.

Public Service Board

The regulatory agency responsible for reviewing proposed utilities and their rights-of-way (the Section 248 process).

Professional Traffic Operations Engineer

The Professional Traffic Operations Engineers (PTOE) certification is accredited by the National Commission for Certifying Agencies (NCCA). This certification requires that the holder be a licensed professional engineer if he or she practices in the United States, Canada or any other country that provides governmental licensing of engineers.

Planned Unit Development

24 VSA 4303 (19): One or more lots, tracts, or parcels of land to be developed as a single entity, the plan for which may propose any authorized combination of density or intensity transfers or increases, as well as the mixing of land uses. The plan, as authorized, may deviate from bylaw requirements that are otherwise applicable to the area in which it is located with respect to lot size, bulk, or type of dwelling or building, use, density, intensity, lot coverage, parking, required common open space, or other standards. See 24 VSA 4417.

Partial Zero Emission Vehicle

A vehicle that has zero evaporative emissions from its fuel system, has a 15 year (or at least 150,000 mile) warranty, and meets SULEV tailpipe emission standards.

Quality Assurance Project Plan

A QAPP documents the planning, implementation, assessment procedures, and quality control activities for any particular project. It integrates all the technical and quality aspects of the project in order to provide a blueprint for obtaining the type and quality of environmental data needed for a specific decision or use. All work performed or funded by EPA that involves the acquisition of environmental data must have an approved QAPP.

Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement

Removed and/or reprocessed pavement materials containing asphalt and aggregate produced from pavement materials removed for resurfacing or reconstruction. When crushed and graded, RAP provides a high quality aggregate coated in asphalt that can be blended with conventional aggregates to create aggregate base and surface layer materials that produce roadways with good drainage characteristics and durability. Care must be taken when blending the RAP material with conventional aggregates as it has been found that above 20% to 25% RAP content decreases the strength of the roadway because less compaction of the blended material can be achieved. There are also unresolved environmental concerns regarding the leachability characteristics of RAP where it may be in contact with groundwater.

Rail Diesel Car

A self-propelled, diesel-powered rail passenger car originally built by the Budd Company of Philadelphia between 1949 and 1956 (also termed the “Budd Car”). This vehicle was the original “DMU”. A remanufactured, Federal Railroad Administration-approved version is available to date.

Request for Proposal

A formal invitation to organizations to bid on a scope of work for an outlined project.

Request for Qualifications

A formal invitation to organizations to submit their qualifications and merits to undertake a scope of work for an outlined project.

Record of Decision

A record of agreement that a proposed project meets all applicable requirements of an EIS. An ROD is issued by the designated lead agency in the study.


A pathway or road with a specific description (e.g. ‘Access and egress 22 feet wide from the centerline of Main Road in Huntington’). ROW may also entail rights to cross property to go to and from another parcel, to pass across another’s land, or right to cross without a specific description (e.g. a floating easement). Railroads own title to a right of way upon which to build permanent tracks.

Regional Planning Commission

Enabled by state law, RPCs assist communities within their region to develop local and invoke regional comprehensive land use, transportation and economic development plans which have regulatory recognition in Vermont Act 250 land use proceedings and state agency planning efforts.

Roadway Safety Audit Review

A formal safety performance examination of a road or intersection by an multi-disciplinary team. An RSAR reports on potential safety concerns and investigates strategies to improve safety at the specified location. Issues that should be addressed in the report ought to include; 1. Aspects of a safety concern in or around the roadway, and 2. Opportunities to mitigate or eliminate identified safety concerns.

Road Surface Management System

A program which assists local governments in identifying maintenance and repair strategies for roads.


Also termed a “Rail-Trail”, a RWT is a shared-use path located on, or abutting an abandoned or converted railroad line.

Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users

On 10 August 2005, the new Federal surface transportation act (SAFETEA-LU) was signed into law, authorizing a $286.4 billion transportation program for a 5-year period; FFY 2004-2009. This act covers all surface transportation programs, such as highways, highway safety, transit, freight, and transportation research.

Supply Chain Consortium

A private-sector consortium which collects data, develops indicators, advises on “Best Practices” optimizing performance and profitability of a supply chain.

Supply Chain Management

Planning and management of business activities involved in movement of freight. SCM seeks to equalize supply and demand across all tiers of the chain (e.g. Supplier — Primary Manufacturer — Secondary Manufacturer — Regional Warehouse — Distributor — Retailer — Consumer).

State Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plan

A comprehensive plan for outdoor recreation in each state is a requirement for receiving support from the Land and Water Conservation Fund (LWCF).

Soil Conservation Service

Soil Conservation Service

Strategic Highway Safety Plan

Required by federal law (SAFETEA-LU, 2005), An SHSP identifies a State’s key safety needs, whilst guiding investment decisions to achieve significant reductions in highway fatalities and injuries on all public roads. The SHSP facilitates all State highway safety programs to work in concert to align all its resources to collectively address safety challenges on all its public roads.

State Implementation Plan

Clean Air Act plan which identifies how the state will attain and/or maintain NAAQS standards.

Standard Land Use Coding Manual

Developed by the Housing and Urban Development Agency in 1965, SLUCM was a predecessor to the more current LBCS (APA’s Land-Based Classification Standards). The 1965 SLUCM provided a numeric coding schema using two, three, four, or more digits identifying land-use categories. An additional two to eight digits identified Ownership, Type of Structure an activity was housed, and Secondary Use Codes identifying additional land uses. SLUCM land uses categories were derived from Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes.

Sulfur Dioxide

Petroleum fuels contain traces of sulphur compounds and produce Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) during combustion. The majority of the SO2 pollution comes from power generation, which is a significant cause of “Acid Rain”. Except for the shipping mode, transportion is not a major contributing source of SO2.

Single Occupancy Vehicle

Vehicle carrying only a driver.

State Planning and Research Funds

Funds intended for planning and research purposes. SPR funding requires that States allocate 2 percent of their apportionments received from federal programs (e.g. Interstate Maintenance, NHS, Surface Transportation, Highway Bridge, CMAQ, et al.) for State planning and research activities. From this 2 percent, States must then allocate 25 percent for research, development, and technology (RD&T).

Substantial Regional Impact

In the context of the State of Vermont planning practice, a proposed development has a Substantial Regional Impact (SRI) if a policy of this Regional Plan that is relevant to the determination of an issue in an Act 250 or Section 248 proceeding makes recommendations that are more specific about one or more characteristics, features, standards, or conditions relating to the proposed development than the recommendations of the municipal plan. SRI is an impact of Land Development that triggers the requirements of 24 VSA 4345a (16), (17), and 4348 (h). An SRI is not automatically in conflict with a regional plan. An SRI is not always an Adverse Impact. 24 VSA 4345a (17) requires each RPC to define SRI as the term is to be used with respect to its region in its Regional Plan. This Regional Plan discusses and defines SRI for Chittenden County at pages 1-14 to 1-18.

Safe Routes To School

Mandated by federal law (SAFETEA-LU), “Safe Routes To School” is intended to benefit children in primary and middle schools (K-8) by encouraging them to walk and bike to school regularly, routinely, and safely. SR2S integrates elements of transportation, economics, health, physical activity, environmental awareness and safety.

Special Service District

A contiguous, designated area that receives a special type and/ or level of one or more public services or infra-structure that is paid for by a special tax levy on properties located in the area.

Stopping Sight Distance

The minimum distance a driver can see ahead in tandem with how long it takes for her/him to stop. According to the AASHTO “Green Book”, this distance is comprised of two components; 1. Perception-Reaction Time, which covers the distance a vehicle travels from the moment the driver sees an object necessitating a stop, to the instant the brakes are applied, and — 2. Braking Distance, which is the distance a vehicle travels during the braking maneuver.

Special Services Transportation Agency

Chittenden County non-profit organization providing paratransit services.

Small Transit Intensive Cities

Federal program (or formula) intended to support public transportation in smaller urban areas that have transit systems that perform as well or better than systems in larger metropolitan areas (according to six performance categories; 1. Passenger miles traveled per vehicle revenue mile, 2. Passenger miles traveled per vehicle revenue hour 3. Vehicle revenue miles per capita, 4. Vehicle revenue hours per capita, 5. Passenger miles traveled per capita, and 6.Unlinked passenger trips per capita). Only MPOs with urban-area populations of less than 200,000 are eligible for this funding.

Surface Transportation Program

Federal program providing flexible funding for projects on any Federal-aid highway, including the NHS, bridge projects on any public road, transit capital projects, and bus facilities.

Strategic Highway Network

A network of highways which are important for U.S. strategic defense policy and which provide defense access, continuity and emergency capabilities for defense purposes.

Super Ultra Low Emission Vehicle

A vehicle producing 90 percent less pollutants than an average gasoline-powered vehicle for the year of manufacture.

Technical Assistance

The CCMPO technical assistance program provides technical support relating to transportation issues for member municipalities and agencies. Services typically provided through this program include: Traffic Counts, Speed Limit Recommendations, Traffic Signal Optimization, Traffic Control Warrant Analysis, Roadway Surface Management Studies, Small Area Transportation Studies, and Safety Studies.

Transportation Advisory Committee

A committee that recommends plans and programs to the CCMPO Board (formerly know as the Technical Advisory Committee).

Terminal Area Forecast

A system that provides an official forecast of aviation activity at FAA facilities. These forecasts are prepared to meet the budget and planning needs of FAA and provide information for use by state and local authorities, the aviation industry, and the public. The TAF includes forecasts for; 1. FAA towered airports, 2. Federally contracted towered airports, 3. Nonfederal towered airports, 4. Non-towered airports. Detailed forecasts are prepared for major users of the National Aviation System, which include; 1. Large air carriers, 2. Air Taxi/Commuters, 3. General aviation, and 4. Military.

Transportation Action Grant

A CCMPO sponsored competitive planning grant program designed to encourage innovative, action-oriented transportation planning initiatives in Chittenden County.

Traffic Analysis Zone

Chittenden County is divided into 335 small areas. Each area has relatively similar characteristics within its boundaries. Often derived from Census Blocks, or Block Groups, TAZs represent land use data on housing and employment in the Travel Demand modeling process.

Transportation Control Measures

Actions, which are usually found in a State Implementation Plan (SIP), that improves traffic flow, reduce vehicle use, or decrease congestion with the objective of lessening air pollutant emissions.

Transportation, Community and System Preservation Program

Federal program that provides funding for planning grants, implementation grants, and research to investigate and address the relationships between transportation, community and system preservation.

Telecommunications Display Device

Apparatus that converts telephoned information to visual form on a computer screen. Useful to hearing or speech-impaired individuals.

Travel Demand Forecasting (Modelling)

A four-step (some consider it a five-step) process used to predict future traffic on a transportation network. The five steps, in order, are; 1. Trip Generation, 2. Trip Distribution, 3. Mode Split/Mode Choice, 4. Traffic Assignment, and 5. Model Validation and Reasonableness Checks.

Transportation Demand Management

Low-cost programs that focus on decreasing travel and the use of SOVs, and increasing the use of other modes.

Transferable Development Rights

A Bylaw that allows for development rights to be transferred from one or more designated sending areas to one or more designated receiving areas. See 24 VSA 4423.

Transportation Enhancement Program

Federal funding program for projects designed to enhance transportation related quality of life. Such projects and programs generally relate to such activities as; Bicycle and pedestrian infrastructure and safety programs, Scenic and historic highway programs, Landscaping and scenic beautification, Historic preservation, and Environmental mitigation.

Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century

Enacted in July 1998, TEA-21 calls for integrating all modes of transportation – cars, trains, trucks, buses, ferries, walking and biking – into a single, efficient and ‘seamless’ transportation system. It mandates greater local control over transportation funding decisions through MPOs, such as the CCMPO.

Twenty-Foot Equivalent Unit
(or: 20-Foot Equivalent Unit)

A Twenty-Foot Equivalent Unit is used to express shipping or capacity volume of freight. Using the ISO standard of a 20-foot shipping container as a means of measurement, TEUs further summarise a general sense of freight traffic moving through major shipping ports commonly reported by government or industry. A TEU is an approximate measure of containerized cargo capacity (20 ft. long * 8 ft. wide container), which does not account for container height.

Tax Increment Finance District

Locally designated area receiving targeted investments from increased property tax revenue.

Transportation Improvement Program

A list of federally funded projects planned for a four-year period and consistent with the goals of the MTP.

Traffic Impact Study

Also known as Traffic Impact Analysis (TIA), these are studies which collect and analyze information to determine need, impact, and impact mitigation for major roadway improvements. Some activities of a TIS include; Traffic counts, Crash evaluation, Capacity & Level Of Service calculation, Signal Warrant analysis, Development of condition diagrams, Forecasting future traffic volumes with new development and/or alternatives.

Truck Load

“Truckload”, or “Full Truckload” carriers (FTL or TL) usually haul freight in single moves from shipper to receiver (See FTL for a more detailed description).

Transportation for Livable Communities

A CCMPO grant program that supports development that strengthens the link between transportation investments and community livability.

Transportation Management Area

An area designated by the US Secretary of Transportation, having an urbanized area population of over 200,000, or upon special request from the Governor and the MPO, or under special circumstances designated for the area.

Transportation Management Association

A voluntary association of public organizations, private agencies, and businesses joined to develop cooperative transportation programs in a given area.

Total Maximum Daily Load

The sum of the individual wasteload allocations (WLAs) for point sources, load allocations (LAs) for nonpoint sources and natural background, and a margin of safety (MOS). TMDLs can be expressed in terms of mass per time, toxicity, or other appropriate measures that relate to a state’s water quality standard.

Transit-Oriented Design

High density and mixed use land development around transit system stops. TOD employs land-use, site design, and architectural principles that make it more conducive for transit (e.g., intersection designs to facilitate bus turning movements, bus pullout lanes, transit kiosks and shelters) and non-motorized travel (higher density, mixed uses within walking distances of each other, bike lanes, sidewalks, and streetscape features such as benches) and may include design features that are intended to restrict auto use (such as reduced off-street parking areas).

Transit-Oriented Development

Mixed-use (residential, commercial, and industrial) development and zoning designed around commuter rail or bus facilities and infrastructure.


A shipping container capable of transport upon a rail flat car or truck flat bed trailer. Same as COFC.

Transportation Planning Initiative

An effort by VTrans to ensure that the public plays a significant role in determining which transportation problems to be addressed and the scale of those improvements.

Transportation Research Board

TRB is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council, advising the President and Congress specifically on the development of transportation. TRB is a forum engaging engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public, private, and academic sectors to promote progress and innovation through interdisciplinary research.

Transit-Ready Development

Similar to TOD, TRD prepares a neighbourhood, corridor, or area for future transit expansion with neighbourhood densities, road networks, pedestrian infrastructure, and public facilities designed as transit destinations.

Trip Reduction Ordinance

Local regulations requiring employers, developers, or housing managers to provide incentives for workers or residents to use alternative modes of transport.

Urbanized Area

First delineated in the 1950 Census, urbanized areas are densely settled territory, which the U.S. Census Bureau defined from 1950 to 1990 as having a population of 1,000,000 or more. Since the 2000 Census, Urbanized Areas are defined as: Core census block groups or blocks that have a population density of at least 1,000 people per square mile, and a total population of 50,000 or greater. Areas of the same population density, but having a total population ranging from 2,500 to 50,000 are defined in the 2000 Census as an “Urban Cluster” (UC).

Urban Growth Boundary

A regional boundary, which is created to efficiently utilise land and regulate urban/sub-urban development into agricultural, forest lands, and other natural areas. By zoning high density development within the UGB, there is greater leverage to encourage the continual redevelopment of land and buildings within urban cores (thereby keeping “downtowns” active), as opposed to unabated land consumption encroaching into natural areas. UGBs can further reduce infrastructure and transportation expenses by maintaining a local compact development strategy.

Ultra Low Emission Vehicle

A vehicle producing 50 percent less pollutants than an average gasoline-powered vehicle for the year of manufacture.

Unlinked Passenger Trips

Total number of passengers who board public transportation vehicles. It should be noted that passengers are counted each time they board vehicles no matter how many vehicles they use to travel from their origin to their destination

United States Department of Agriculture

Formed in 1862, the USDA is the United States federal executive department responsible for developing and executing U.S. federal government policy on farming, agriculture, and food. It aims to meet the needs of farmers and ranchers, promote agricultural trade and production, work to assure food safety, protect natural resources, foster rural communities and end hunger in the United States and abroad.

United States Department of Transportation

A federal department of the United States government overseeing transportation, established by Congress in 1966.

Urban Traffic Management System

ITS applications focused on traffic efficiency improvements in an urban area.

United We Ride

Federal initiative created by Executive Order #13330 intended to break down the barriers among Federal programs as they relate to transportation to ensure that transportation services are seamless, comprehensive and accessible. Specifically, UWR is tasked with seeking ways to simplify access to transportation services for persons with disabilities, persons with lower incomes, and older adults.

Volume to Capacity Ratio

An indicator of congestion levels measured by the number of vehicles per hour (volume) divided by the maximum number of cars the road is designed to handle (capacity).

Vermont Association of Planning & Development Agencies

Organization comprised of Regional Planning Commission directors and the Chittenden County MPO director, chartered to coordinate a combination of environmental and economic planning strategies

Vermont Association of Snow Travellers

VAST is Vermont’s non-profit, private volunteer snowmobiling organization, responsible for maintenance of Vermont trails. VAST has thousands of members and is one of the oldest such organizations in the U.S.

Vermont Center for Geographic Information

Initiated in 1994, under Act 204 (10 VSA Chapter 8), the Vermont Center for Geographic Information, Inc. (VCGI) is a non-profit public corporation tasked with the development and management of GIS data, and coordination of GIS activities for the State of Vermont.

Vermont Council on Rural Development

Founded in 1992, the Vermont Council on Rural Development assists Vermont communities develop their capacity to create a prosperous and sustainable future through coordination, collaboration, and the effective use of public and private resources.

Vehicle Hours of Delay

An indicator reflecting the time it takes to travel a roadway during peak periods v.s. the time it would to travel at a free-flow 35 miles per hour.

Vermont Housing Finance Agency

The State agency that provides loans to housing developers, allocates federal and State Housing Tax Credits to facilitate housing development, and provides housing subsidies to qualifying households.

Vehicle Hours of Travel

Transportation performance measure that considers the amount of time trip-making takes.

Vermont League of Cities and Towns

Founded in 1967, VLCT is a nonprofit, non-partisan organization serving Vermont municipal officials.

Variable Message Sign

Electronic highway signs where the displayed message can be changed to inform motorists of diferent road, traffic, or weather conditions, etc.

Vehicle Miles Traveled

An indicator of occuring traffic, calculated using Annual Average Daily Traffic (AADT) multiplied by the length of a particular road in question. One car traveling one mile represents 1 unit of VMT.

Vermont Online Bridge & Culvert Inventory Tool

An online user-friendly application to record and update bridge and culvert data for structures owned by communities in Vermont. The Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTrans) was directed by the Vermont Legislature to complete and deploy an integrated software product to handle data entry, access and status reporting of town bridge and culvert inventories currently collected by Regional Planning Commissions (RPCs), the Chittenden County Metropolitan Planning Organization, municipalities, and their contractors. Data within VOBCIT complies with the state “Bridge & Culvert Data Exchange Standard”.

Volatile Organic Compounds

A group of chemicals that reacts in the atmosphere with NOx in the presence of heat and sunlight to form ozone. Examples include gasoline fumes and oil-based paints.

Vermont Planners Association

A Vermont membership-based, non-profit organization of professional planners, citizen planners, landscape architects, engineers, housing and economic development specialists, and developers.

Vehicles Per Day

Traffic Volume or Capacity is generally expressed in “Vehicles Per Day” or “Vehicles Per Hour”.

Vermont Rail Advisory Council

Instituted in 1993, VRAC was created to advise the Governor and The Agency of Transportation on rail issues. Meeting about 5-6 times per year, members are recruited from private rail industry, operators on state-owned railroads, freight shippers, environmental and economic development organizations, regional chambers of commerce, regional planning commissions, the House & Senate Transportation Committees, and travel and recreation organizations.

Vermont Rail Advocacy Network

A grassroots network of advocates promoting greater rail mode utilization for passenger and freight in Vermont.

Vermont Statutes Annotated

The official codification of the laws enacted by the Vermont General Assembly (i.e. Legislature).

Vermont State Standards

Formally known as the “Vermont State Standard for the Design of Transportation Construction, Reconstruction and Rehabilitation on Freeways, Roads and Streets”, VSS was developed during the mid-1990’s, standardizing the physical design parameters and guidelines of Vermont bridges and roadways. VSS was initially created for two purposes: 1. To provide clear technical direction to the designers of transportation projects in Vermont. AND: 2. To achieve roadway and bridge designs which provide access, mobility and safety for users, and which are also sensitive to the social and environmental context of Vermont.

Vermont Transportation Authority

Operator of passenger rail services.

Vermont Railway

A privately operated railroad company.

Vermont Agency of Transportation

Agency that establishes state policies and plans, and implements programs and projects, for all modes of transportation.

Way To Go Week

Vermont annual TDM program that encourages the population to commute non-SOV for one week in the month of May.

Weigh-in-Motion Detectors

A device employed to capture specific truck-axle or gross vehicle weight as trucks travel over a sensor. Such information is useful in highway or bridge design, as well as truck size and weight enforcement.

Wellhead Protection Area

An area designated by the Vermont Department of Health to protect the quality of public water supplies.

Water Resources Panel

The NRB Panel that oversees the development of water resources management and wetlands protection policies for Vermont through (1) the adoption of State water quality standards and rules regulating, for example, the use of public waters, lake levels, and development impacts on significant wetlands and their protective buffer zones and (2) rulemaking authority to designate and protect significant wetlands and to designate outstanding resource waters.

Winooski Valley Park District

The district that works to make the public waters of the Winooski River accessible for recreational activity by establishing a system of public parks along the Winooski River. See 24 VSA 4861.


Principle where circulating vehicles within a roundabout, traffic circle, or rotary have the Right-of-Way over entering vehicles. Such practice eliminates traffic gridlock within the intersection. However this policy may vary by state, region, or other jurisdiction.

Zoning Administrator

Local administrator in charge of enforcing municipal zoning regulations. The ZA also is responsible for providing information to the public, reviewing plans and documentation for compliance, and assisting applicants with their requests for variances.

Zoning Board of Adjustment

A municipal-level, quasi-judicial body responsible for issuing Zoning Variances, Conditional Use Permits, and hearing appeals. The ZBA interprets the intent of law and sets local land use policy.

Zero Emission Vehicle

Vehicles which do not produce tailpipe and evaporative emissions, where emission-control systems cannot fail, and do not cause emissions from gasoline purchase or its refinement. Of the vehicles which fall in this classification are; Bicycles, Electric vehicles, Compressed-air vehicles, Fuel-cell vehicles, Solar & Hydrogen-powered vehicles, and other human or animal-powered vehicles.