Calcium Carbonate

Gravel, dirt, or recycled asphalt roads have an increased durability when treated with Calcium Carbonate. Usually applied in a liquid or flaked solid form, it penetrates and coats the road aggregate mixture (i.e. various sized particles such as gravel or sand), binding it together to retain road density, compaction, and moisture level. This increases the roadway resistance to wear, reduces dust generation and erosion of the road surface.

Capability & Development Plan

10 VSA 6001 (2): A plan prepared pursuant to 10 VSA 6042. Section 6042 provides for the Natural Resources Board to prepare a plan to guide and accomplish a coordinated, efficient and economic development of the State.


A transportation facility’s (road, railway, etc.) ability to accommodate a moving stream of people or vehicles in a given time period.

Capacity Study

24 VSA 4303 (5): An inventory of available natural and human-made resources based on detailed data collection that identifies the capacities and limits of those resources to absorb Land Development.

Capital Budget

24 VSA 4430 (a): A list and description of the capital projects to be undertaken during the coming fiscal year, their estimated cost, and the proposed method of financing.

Capital Improvement Program

A multi-year plan, which identifies equipment, infrastructure, property improvements, or other tangible purchases, as well as their schedule and financing strategies.

Capital Program

24 VSA 4430 (a): A plan of capital projects proposed to be undertaken during each of the following five years, their estimated cost, and the proposed method of financing.

Capital Project

24 VSA 4430 (a): Includes (1) Any physical betterment or improvement (including furnishings, machinery, apparatus or equipment for that physical betterment or improvement when first constructed or acquired), (2) any preliminary studies and surveys relating to any physical betterment, or improvement, (3) land or rights in land, or (4) any combination thereof.

Capture Rate

The percentage of vehicles which pass a Park & Ride facility, which could be influenced to use it.

Carbon Monoxide

A colorless, tasteless gas produced primarily by inefficient combustion of organic fuels in transportation and industrial activities. Overly high levels of CO reduces oxygen in the bloodstream, preventing normal respiration. CO emissions are regulated by the Agency of Natural Resources.

Carrying Capacity

The capability of a resource to sustain a level of use without having its qualitative features degraded in any significant way.


An alternative to standard car ownership, “Carsharing” offers a means to potentially reduce costs and pollution by renting automobiles on a short-term basis (often by the hour) for the occasional user, utilizing a decentralized parking system called “pods” (often established along transit routes). Carsharing organizations (CSO’s) further administer membership bases, vehicle reservation systems, maintenance, and other administrative functions.

Catch Basin

A catch basin is designed to trap debris so that it will not enter the stormwater drainage system. They are often buried drainage structures that are often placed at regular intervals along the edge of the roadway. Proper placement of catch basins can reduce roadside hazards associated with deep drainage ditches near cross culverts. Catch basins should be deep enough to allow for the collection of gravel and debris and should be inspected and cleaned regularly to prevent collected debris from being washed into connecting culverts or water bodies. Catch basin covers should be selected based on ability to pass debris and not pose a safety hazard to vehicles, bicycles or pedestrians.

Catchment Area

An area of increased influence for use of a site, facility, market, or corridor.

Categorical Exclusion

Federal and State regulations (see; NEPA) require environmental reviews to be performed before expenditure of public funds can be approved for “major projects.” If a project does not meet the definition of “major project” then it may be eligible for what is called a Categorical Exclusion (CE). A CE is the absolute lowest level of environmental review possible for projects. For Vermont transportation projects, VTrans (The State DOT) is responsible for such designation.

Census Transportation Planning Package

CTPP is a demographic dataset intended for transportation planners, which is taken from decennial census. From 1970 to 2000, the CTPP and its predecessor (the UTPP) used data from the decennial census long form (i.e. a component questionaire of the census form sent to 1 in 6 households in Vermont). The CTPP is therefore a sample dataset of the total population. CTPP 2000 has three parts; Part 1. Residence end data summarizing worker and household characteristics, Part 2. Place of work data summarizing worker characteristics, Part 3. Journey-To-Work commuter flow data (which commuties workers live and work within).


The middle of a right-of-way, not considering direction or number of lanes.

Central Business District

Often the geographic center or ‘downtown’ section of a city, town, or village, typifying a concentration of commercial, government, residential, and mixed-use buildings or development

Certificate of Occupancy

See Occupancy Permit

Champlain Water District

Champlain Water District


Separation of conflicting traffic movements into defined paths of travel to facilitate the safe and orderly movement of vehicles, pedestrians, and bicycles.

Chapter 117

The Vermont Municipal and Regional Planning and Development Act. See 24 VSA 4301 – 4483.


A traffic-calming measure employing fixed objects (usually curbs, earth, fencing, etc.), which deliberately project into the travel lane or a road or shared-use path creating a curvature pattern in the line of travel.

Chittenden County Regional Planning Commission

Land use planning agency for Chittenden County, Vermont

Chittenden Solid Waste District

Chittenden Solid Waste District

Circumferential Highway

A proposed limited access highway which traffic is routed around the urban core municipalities of the greater Burlington area, connecting VT State Route 127 in Colchester (to the north) to Interstate Route 89 in Williston (to the east).

Class of Railroad

Originally defined by the Interstate Commerce Commission (which was disbanded in the mid-1990’s), Class of Railroad generally refers to a railroad company’s size in terms of its average annual operating revenue. Specific figures (in 2001 dollars), outlining ‘Classes’ 1-3 are: Class 1 = railroads with an operating income above $256m (many miles of track, serving many states with a fleet of locomotives sometimes in the thousands), Class 2 = railroads with an operating income of $40m – $256m (regional railroad serving a few states with perhaps 30-200 locomotives), Class 3 = railroads with an operating income of $20m or less (typically operates only in one state, has only a handful of locomotives, usually operating less than 200 miles of track).

Class of Track

A Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) track designation, establishing maximum authorized speed for passenger and freight trains, whilst placing requirements on the track maintenance criteria, vehicle standards, and train control signal systems. The maximum speed, outlined in Track Classes 1-9 (freight speed/passenger speed) are: Class 1 = 10/15mph, Class 2 = 25/30mph, Class 3 = 40/60mph, Class 4 = 60/80mph, Class 5 = 80/90mph, Class 6 = 110/110mph, Class 7 = 125/125mph, Class 8 = 160/160mph, Class 9 = 200/200mph.

Class of Vehicle

An FHWA vehicle classification scheme distinguishing 14 categories, depending on whether the vehicle carries passengers or commodities.

Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

Federal legislation that sets allowable levels, known as NAAQS, for various pollutants. Where these standards are not attained, officials must take specified actions within a mandatory time frame or face sanctions such as loss of federal highway funds.


The degree of accuracy of a Metes and Bounds survey used to identify the location of a particular property.

Cluster Development

Land Development that concentrates Land Uses on lots that some-times have been reduced in size below the minimum size required by Zoning, to allow the remaining land on a site to be used for recreation, common open space, or the preservation of environmentally sensitive features.

Code Enforcement

Government efforts to bring properties into compliance with building codes and other bylaws.


The use of excess energy produced in one process or site for another process or site.

Cold Start

The starting of an engine which is significantly below normal operating temperature, of significance in understanding vehicle emissions since the rate and composition of emissions vary with engine temperature. Often the most polluting time of car operation.

Collector Street or Highway

A street or highway that provides for traffic movement between major streets (major corridors or arterials) and local streets. A collector is a road intended to collect traffic from local streets and land-access roads. The term -Collector Highway- does not include a city street or local service road or a country road designed for local service and constructed under the supervision of local government.

Commercial Drivers’ License

A CDL is required for those operating any type of vehicle with a Gross Vehicle Weight of 26,001 lbs. or greater (such as; tractor trailers, buses, and tow trucks).

Commercial Vehicle Operations

An Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) application for advanced technologies in commercial vehicle operations, including; Satelite Navigation & Real-time monitoring, Load-Tracking Systems, International Border Crossing Clearance, Commercial Vehicle Electronic Clearance or Screening, Automated Roadside Safety Inspection, Automated fuel & mileage reporting, Hazardous Material Planning and Incident Response, et al.

Commodity Flow Survey

Primary source of national and state-level data on domestic freight shipments by American establishments in mining, manufacturing, wholesale, auxiliaries, and selected retail industries.

Community Development Block Grant

A flexible federal program administrated by the Department of Housing and Community Affairs that subsidizes a wide range of community development and economic development activities. Beginning in 1974, the CDBG program is one of the longest continuously run programs at HUD. The CDBG program provides annual grants on a formula basis to 1209 general units of local government and States.

Community Facility

A public or private facility used by groups of people (such as a park, school, library, church, or social hall).

Community Land Trust

A nonprofit organization which develops affordable housing, commercial space, and parks while promoting homeowner-ship, historic preservation, local control, and neighborhood revitalization.

Commuter Rail

Generally applies to multi-car, high-speed rail transport utilizing exclusive, frequently at-grade, rights-of-way with service between urban areas or between outlying suburbs and the urban core. Usually involves greater distances and fewer stops than those normally found with light and heavy rail transit within urban areas.

Commuter Shed

Usually refering to a catchment area for a Park & Ride facility, or the origin and destination patterns of commuters along travel corridors or routes.


The characteristic when multiple land uses may be located next to or near one an-other without causing significant adverse impacts on one another.

Compatible Width

24 VSA 4302 (f) (2): One plan is compatible with another plan when the plan’s implementation will not significantly reduce the desired effect of the implementation of the other plan. If a significant reduction would result, the plan may still be compatible if it includes elements described in section 4302 ((f) (2).

Complete Streets

Coined in 2003 by bicycle and pedestrian advocates, “Complete Streets Design Techniques” are employed to enable safe access for all users. Pedestrians, bicyclists, motorists and transit riders of all ages and abilities must be able to safely move along and across a “Complete Street”.

Comprehensive Plan

An officially adopted plan that describes, analyzes, and makes Policies about a wide range of topics (such as community facilities, economy, housing, land use, population, and transportation) to guide the development of an entire area (municipality, region, or state). See 24 VSA 4382 (municipalities) and 4348a (RPCs). See Special Plan.

Compressed Natural Gas

Fuel for natural gas powered vehicles (primarily buses). Natural gas is comprised mostly of methane that is compressed (about 2,400 lbs. per square inch) and stored in high-pressure design containers.


The process by which someone takes ownership of private property by using the power of Eminent Domain.

Conditional Use

A land use that may be authorized only after the Appropriate Municipal Panel finds that conditions specified in the zoning bylaw have been met following a Public Hearing warned by Public Notice.


Real estate with portions designated for separate ownership and the remainder designated for common ownership by the owners of the separately owned portions.


24 VSA 4303 (6): When a bylaw or bylaw amendment is in accord with the municipal plan in effect at the time of adoption and includes all the following: A. Makes progress toward attaining, or at least does not interfere with, the goals and policies contained in the municipal plan. B. Provides for proposed future land uses, densities, and intensities of development contained in the municipal plan. C. Carries out, as applicable, any specific proposals for community facilities, or other proposed actions contained in the municipal plan.


The requirement that the state or metropolitan transportation plan, programs, and projects are consistent with the purpose of the State Implementation Plan (SIP). The CAAA does not permit federal approvals of funding of any project that does not meet this test.


A condition which hinders movement on a transportation facility at optimal legal speeds. Frequently characterized by unstable traffic flows.

Congestion Management Process

Formerly known as a Congestion Management System (CMS), CMP is a federally-mandated program within Metropolitan Planning Organizations to address and manage congestion.

Congestion Management System

A systematic process for managing congestion and enhancing mobility through alternative transportation strategies and timely information to the traveling public.

Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality

A program authorized by the 1991 ISTEA provided billions of dollars in funding for surface transportation and other projects that contribute to air quality improvements and reduce traffic congestion. The CMAQ program has been improved and reauthorized in all subsequent federal transportation re-authorization bills.

Congestion Pricing

Charging users of a transportation network during peak periods of traffic, in order to reduce traffic congestion and pollution.

Conservation Commission

A municipal body that may prepare studies and inventories of, recommend municipal acquisition of, and manage property for conservation. See 24 VSA 4501 to 4506.

Conservation Easement

An easement that prohibits an owner from developing, altering, or using a specific property in ways that do not conserve the property as open space or preserve its historic or scenic character.

Consistent with the Goals

24 VSA 4302 (f) (1): Substantial progress toward attainment of the goals established by 24 VSA 4302 or (if the planning body determines that a particular goal is not relevant or attainable) the requirements defined in 24 VSA 4302 (f) (1) are met.

Consumer Price Index

Calculated monthly by the Federal Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), the Consumer Price Index (CPI) is a measure of the average change over time in the prices paid by consumers for a representative basket of goods and services. The CPI is used for a number of purposes, such as; An economic indicator of the effectiveness of economic policy, A method to adjust dollar values for economic inflation or deflation, et al.


A shipping container capable of transport upon a rail flat car or truck flat bed trailer. Same as TOFC.


The practice of using International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Containers as a unit in transport of freight. Containers are strong enough for repeated use, can carry goods on truck, rail, seabourne, and airborne modes, and are outfitted with devices for efficient modal shift. Standard containers come in five general sizes; 20 ft., 40 ft., 45 ft., 48 ft., and 53 ft. Capacity is often expressed in twenty-foot equivalent units (see TEU).

Context-Sensitive Solutions

The process of CSS seeks to preserve aesthetics, historical context, and environmental resources in areas of proposed development, while maintaining efficiency and safety of the transportation system. It is a collaborative and interdisciplinary approach, involving a variety of stakeholders to develop facilities and infrastructure in harmony with their current physical setting.

Continuous Traffic Counters

Operated by VTrans, CTCs are permanently deployed traffic counters, which are capable of collecting traffic data for an entire year or longer.

Continuous Welded Rail

Superior to traditional “jointed track”, where rails are bolted together, CWR provides superior strength for higher speed locomotives and requires less maintenance.

Contract Zoning

An illegal modification of zoning regulations expressly made to suit a particular property owner, rather than to benefit the public welfare.

Contraflow Lane

Otherwise known as a “reversible lane”, it is utilised for buses where the direction of travel is opposite to the flow of traffic in the other lanes. Contraflow lanes are also employed for maintenance purposes, or in cases of emergency evacuation where both sides of an interstate highway are used for outbound traffic.


Comparisons of transportation-planning materials on one agency with those of other agencies and subsequent adjustment of these materials to reduce omissions, duplications, and conflict.

Corduroy Road

In the context of Ancient Roads, a “Corduroy” road is a road built using tree logs as a sub-base where logs or poles layed crosswise. Such roads were common to moisture prone locations.

Core Forest

Those portions of forested area that are at least a certain minimum distance from a zone of human disturbance.

Corner Sight Distance

The minimum distance a driver can see across an intersection corner in tandem with the length of time it takes the driver to safely traverse the intersection (past potential crossing vehicles) on to the roadway, and accelerating up to traffic flow speed.


A geographic area that is defined by major highway and rail facilities, and major flows of travel. Transportation corridors are identified for the purpose of analyzing the patterns and flows of traffic between origins and destinations. In the context of general planning, a corridor is an area (often designated) closely associated with a linear feature (such as a river, highway, utility, or zone of wildlife movement).

Cost-Benefit Analysis

An evaluation of the disadvantages (costs) and advantages (benefits) of a proposed project, policy, action, or decision that often attempts to quantify the disadvantages and advantages into a single unit of measure, such as dollars.


Operations in a warehouse not relating to storage, where freight is shifted from different trucks to consolidate loads for immediate shipping.


A roadway crown is the high point located at the centerline of the road with a uniform slope of surface toward each shoulder. The purpose of the crown is to create a natural means of drainage for stormwater to flow off of the roadway surface. A properly shaped crown facilitates this flow in uniform, thin sheets, thus preventing scour and washout of the roadway surface or seepage into the subbase. A paved road generally has a cross slope of 2% (or 1/4″ decline per foot from crown to shoulder). An unpaved road generally has a cross slope of 4% – 6% (or 1/2″ – 3/4″ decline per foot from crown to shoulder).


A Local Street that is terminated at one end by a vehicular turnaround and that intersects another street at the other end.


Often constructed out of steel, concrete, plastic, or PVC, a culvert is conduit infrastructure used to channel water underneath and away from a road or railway embankment.

Cumulative Impacts

The impact on the environment which results from the incremental impact of an action (such as a transportation project) when added to other past, present, and reasonably foreseeable future actions.

Cutaway Buses

Transit vehicles constructed with a Bus-body attached to a small-to-medium sized truck or van chassis. The vehicles are generally less than 30 ft. long (although some may measure up to 35 ft. long), typically weigh less than 30,000 lbs. (Gross Vehicle Weight), and are designed to accommodate anywhere from 16 to 28 passengers. A cutaway vehicle is smaller than a conventional bus while providing more space, particularly for wheelchairs, compared to other small-to-medium sized vehicle options. With regard to the public transit market, cutaway buses are critical components of paratransit service across the United States. Additionally, private sector transportation also represents a large market for cutaway buses.