85th Percentile Speed
(or: Eighty-Fifth Percentile)

The maximum speed at which 85% of all vehicles are travelling.


A congressional budgetary mechanism built into the appropriation bill, often used to undertake specific projects. Earmarks are generally designated as a dollar amount.


A less-than-fee property right that can be positive or negative. A positive easement authorizes a second party to use the property in a specific, limited way (such as a right-of-way that authorizes the second party to cross the property). A negative easement prohibits a property owner from using the property fully (such as a scenic easement that prevents an owner from building a structure on the property that would block the public’s view of a distant mountain). An appurtenant easement benefits a neighboring property; an easement that is not appurtenant is in gross.

Eastern Border Transportation Coalition

Organization providing a cross-border issue forum for each U.S. state, Canadian province, and border service agency.

Economic Development

Policies, actions, and/or projects intended to improve the qualitative characteristics or to expand the quantitative size of the economy.

Economic Development Association

The federal office responsible for the provision of federal economic development assistance to economically depressed areas, especially to areas of high unemployment.


A way of exiting or travelling away from a location. Egress generally describes vehicle or pedestrian movements from the perspective of driveways and walkways which provide “egress from a property”. See also “Access” or “Ingress”.

Electronic Toll & Traffic Management

ETTM systems equip vehicles with electronic tags (or transponders) that communicate with roadside sensors to provide automatic vehicle identification that allows for toll collection at the toll booth, and general vehicle monitoring and data gathering beyond the toll plaza. These systems the potential to reduce congestion, improve safety, energy efficiency, air quality, and to enhance economic productivity at a cost significantly less than additional road construction.


24 VSA 44303 (16): A component of a Comprehensive Plan.

Eminent Domain

The power of a government (or a person delegated such authority by a government) to require an owner to sell private property to the entity exercising the power if the entity pays the owner Just Compensation.

Emissions Budget

An aspect of the State Implementation Plan (SIP) that identifies allowable emissions levels, mandated by the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for certain pollutants emitted from mobile, stationary, and area sources. The emissions levels are used for meeting emission reduction milestones, attainment, or maintenance demonstrations.

Emissions Inventory

An emissions inventory is a database that lists (by source of emission) the amount of air pollutants discharged into the atmosphere of a community or region during a given period of time.


When a land use is located too close to another land use, resulting in one or more Adverse Impacts.

Endangered Species

10 VSA 5401 (6): A species listed on the state endangered species list (see 10 VSA 5402) or determined to be an endangered species under the federal Endangered Species Act. The term generally refers to species whose continued existence as a viable component of the state’s wild fauna or flora is in jeopardy.

Enterprise Planning Area

A location designated by this Regional Plan that is recommended to be a center for employment.

Environmental Assessment

The purpose of an EA is to determine if there is sufficient evidence for a proposed project to require a more comprehensive Environmental Impact Study (EIS). Often an EA is a sufficient environmental document in itself when impacts of a project minor or can be mitigated.

Environmental Court

The court authorized to hear appeals of local land use decisions, ANR regulatory decisions, and District Environmental Commission decisions of Act 250 permit applications. See 4 VSA 1001 to 1004.

Environmental Impact Statement

Document that studies all likely impacts resulting from major federally-assisted programs. Impacts include those on the natural environment, economy, society, and the built (existing) environment of historical and aesthetic significance.

Environmental Justice

The fair treatment of people of all races, cultures, and income with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, programs and policies.

Environmental Protection Agency

The federal regulatory agency responsible for administering and enforcing environmental laws, including the Clean Air Act.

Equivalent Single Axle Load

Equivalent 18-kip Single Axle Load. A basic premise of truck weight enforcement is that there is a resulting reduction in the rate of pavement deterioration. ESAL measures Truck traffic loading expressed as the number of equivalent 18,000 lb (80 kN) single axle loads.

Essential Air Services

Federal subsidy program for scheduled air services to rural communities


The dedication of property, payment of money in lieu of dedication, or other contribution that a government requires a developer to make as a condition for some government action (such as approval of a development permit).

Exclusionary Zoning

A legal doctrine that prohibits government from using Zoning to exclude specific types of people (such as racial minorities, poor people, or handicapped people) or certain types of lawful Land Uses (such as churches, group homes, or mobile homes) that can take 3 forms: (1) explicit (expressly prohibiting a land use in a zoning ordinance), (2) implicit (failing to include a land use in a list of permitted land uses), and (3) effective (using unreasonable design standards to discourage development of a land use).

Excursion Train

A rail enterprise catering to tourism or leisure markets in the form of seasonal, recreational, historical, or tourist service destinations.


A controlled access, divided arterial highway for through traffic where intersecting roads are bypassed via Grade Separation.