- 4A’s of the Federal-Aid Highway Program
(or: Four A's)4As
The process of funding highways that are desginated as part of the Federal-Aid System; Authorization, Appropriation, Apportionment, Allocation
- 4PL Provider
(or: Fourth-Party Logistics)4PL
Similar to a ‘Third-Party Logisitcs’ (3PL) service provider, a 4PL specializes in expertise in the design of ‘Supply Chain Management’ systems, but has no freight moving assets (e.g. warehouses or infrastructure) of its own.
- Fare Elasticity
The extent to which ridership responds to fare increases or decreases.
- Farebox Recovery Ratio
The proportion of revenue generated through fares by paying customers as a fraction of the cost of total operating expenses. The system-wide farebox recovery rate for the Chittenden County Transportation Authority (CCTA) for 2009 was in the range of 20-25%, with the ratio on the LINK routes substantially higher.
- Fatality Analysis Reporting SystemFARS
FARS is a federal census of crashes involving any motor vehicle on a trafficway, but only in fatal crashes. It is generally considered to be the most reliable national crash database. A large truck is defined in the FARS as a truck with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of more than 10,000 pounds. A bus is defined in the FARS as a large motor vehicle used to carry more than 10 passengers, including school buses, inter-city buses, and transit buses. FARS is maintained by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA).
- Federal-Aid InterstateFAI
Originally authorized by the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956, a system for the allocation of funds by formula was developed for Interstates, which was based the most heavily travelled routes of the Federal-Aid Primary system. The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1973, which required the use of “Functional Highway Classification” to update and modify the Federal-aid highway systems by July 1, 1976 replaced this classification scheme.
- Federal-Aid PrimaryFAP
Originally authorized by the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1944, a system for the allocation of funds by formula was developed based on area, population, and route miles. The Federal-Aid Primary system was considered the primary travelled roads. The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1973, which required the use of “Functional Highway Classification” to update and modify the Federal-aid highway systems by July 1, 1976 replaced this classification scheme.
- Federal-Aid SecondaryFAS
Originally authorized by the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1944, a system for the allocation of funds by formula was developed based on area, population, and route miles. The Federal-Aid Secondary system was considered the “Farm-to-Market” roads. The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1973, which required the use of “Functional Highway Classification” to update and modify the Federal-aid highway systems by July 1, 1976 replaced this classification scheme.
- Federal-Aid UrbanFAU
Those roads within Urbanized Areas (UA) that are designated upon the Federal-Aid System (FAS), and are functionally classed as; 11 (Urban Interstate), 12 (Urban Other Freeway or Expressway), 14 (Urban Other Principal Arterial), 16 (Urban Minor Arterial), or 17 (Urban Collector).
- Federal Aviation AdministrationFAA
U.S. Department of Transportation agency responsible for aviation related programs.
- Federal Highway AdministrationFHWA
U.S. Department of Transportation agency responsible for highways.
- Federal Railroad AdministrationFRA
U.S. Department of Transportation agency responsible for railroad programs.
- Federal Transit AdministrationFTA
U.S. Department of Transportation agency that administers federal funding to support a variety of locally planned, constructed, and operated public transportation systems throughout the U.S., including buses, subways, light rail, commuter rail, streetcars, monorail, passenger ferry boats, inclined railways, and people movers.
- Fee Simple (Fee Simple Absolute)
The legal term for ownership of the bundle of property rights (such as rights of use, development, possession, transfer, & mineral rights) for a particular property.
- Feeder Service
Local transport providing passengers with connections to a longer service.
- Field of ViewFOV
Field of View
- Final Plat (or Plan)
A plat prepared in accordance with bylaw standards that depicts the exact design of a proposed subdivision that is submitted to obtain formal municipal approval for the proposal. Such approval typically authorizes the plat to be recorded.
A factual determination made by an Appropriate Municipal Panel that is based on evidence and testimony received at a Public Hearing that serves as the basis for its decision.
- Finding of No Significant ImpactFONSI
If a “Finding of No Significant Impact” is concluded from an Environmental Assessment, a full EIS would not be required for the project.
- Fixed-Based OperatorFBO
Provider of aviation support services at airports, such as; fueling, line, paint, avionics, aircraft maintenance, hangar, catering, and other ground and/or logistical services.
- Fixed GuidewayFG
A public transportation facility, which utilizes and occupies a separate right-of-way (ROW), or rail line, for the exclusive use of mass transportation and other high occupancy vehicles, or uses a fixed catenary system and a right of way usable by other forms of transportation. This term may include modes such as; rapid rail, light rail, commuter rail, automated guideway transit, people movers, ferry boat service, and fixed-guideway facilities for buses (such as bus rapid transit – BRT) and other high occupancy vehicles.
- Flag Lot
A Lot that (1) at the Street Line is narrower than the required minimum Lot Width but is wide enough to provide for a Driveway and (2) at the rear of the Lot is wide enough to comply with the required minimum Lot Width.
- Flexible Funds
Federal transportation funding that may be used for highway and/or transit.
- Floating Zone (or District)
A Zoning District for which there are regulations in the text of the Bylaw, but which is mapped (either automatically or by application) on the Zoning Map only when specific conditions for the establishment of the district are met in a particular area.
- Flood Fringe
The portion of a Floodplain that is outside the Floodway.
- Flood Hazard Area
24 VSA 4303 (8): The land subject to flooding from the Base Flood.
- Flood Zone A
Areas of a 100-year flood (1% chance flooding in a year). Such data represents a starting-point for floodplain mapping and should be used with caution as it may be highly inaccurate in some locations. Site-specific determinations should be done using the official source Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs), site inspections, interviews of people who witnessed historic floods, and if needed, hydrologic engineering studies.
- Flood Zone B
Areas between a 100-year and 500-year flood (0.2% chance flooding in a year). Such data represents a starting-point for floodplain mapping and should be used with caution as it may be highly inaccurate in some locations. Site-specific determinations should be done using the official source Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs), site inspections, interviews of people who witnessed historic floods, and if needed, hydrologic engineering studies.
The National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) regulates any development in mapped floodplains based on the 100-year flood (i.e. those areas which have a 1% chance of a flood in any given year). Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) issued Flood maps delineate 100-year floodplains, as well as 500-year floodplains (i.e. those areas which have a 0.2% chance of a flood in any given year).
24 VSA 4303 (8) (A): Any combination of structural and nonstructural additions, changes, or adjustments to properties and structures that substantially reduce or eliminate flood damage to any combination of real estate, improved real property, water or sanitary facilities, structures, and the contents of structures.
24 VSA 4303 (8) (B): The channel of a river or other watercourse and the adjacent land area that must be reserved in order to discharge the base flood without accumulatively increasing the water surface elevation more than one foot. New development often is prohibited in the floodway.
- Floor Area (Gross)
The total area of all the floors of a building, as measured to the outside surfaces of exterior walls (or from the centerline of party walls separating buildings or dwelling units), but may exclude cellars, crawl spaces, garages, carports, attics without floors, open porches, and balconies.
- Floor Area RatioFAR
A measurement used to determine the building volume permitted on a particular lot that equals the floor area of all of the buildings on a lot divided by the total land area of the lot. For example, an FAR of 3.0 applied to a 20,000 square foot lot would permit a building with up to 60,000 square feet of floor area. The owner also could construct a building with up four 15,000 square foot floors, five 12,000 square foot floors, six 10,000 square foot floors, and so on. The community’s building height regulations would limit how tall the building could be.
- Fog LineFOGL
Reflective white lines painted along the shoulder of a road demarking the legally extent a motor vehicle is allowed to operate.
A prediction that is based on (1) a mathematical formula that describes the relationship between the measure to be predicted and one or more other factors and (2) predictions of the future values of those other factors.
- Forestry & Secondary Soils
10 VSA 6001 (8): Soils that are not Primary Agricultural Soils but have reasonable potential for commercial forestry or commercial agriculture, and have not yet been developed. In order to qualify as forest or secondary agricultural soils the land containing such soils shall be characterized by location, natural conditions and ownership patterns capable of supporting or contributing to present or potential commercial forestry or commercial agriculture. If a tract of land includes other than forest or secondary agricultural soils only the forest or secondary agricultural soils shall be affected by criteria relating specifically to such soils.
- Form-Based CodeFBC
A departure from the 20th century standard planning practice of developing municipal zoning codes based upon separation of land use. Form-based codes (FBC) facilitate a compatible building environment for public spaces by using physical form as the primary criterion behind a municipality’s zoning code. According to the Form-Based Codes Institute (FBCI); ‘Form-based codes address the relationship between building facades and the public realm, the form and mass of buildings in relation to one another, and the scale and types of streets and blocks. The regulations and standards in form-based codes are presented in both words and clearly drawn diagrams and other visuals. They are keyed to a regulating plan that designates the appropriate form and scale (and therefore, character) of development, rather than only distinctions in land-use types.’
- Formula Grants
Funds distributed according to some legislated or regulated scheme.
- Forty-Foot Equivalent Unit
(or: 40-Foot Equivalent Unit)FEU
A Forty-Foot Equivalent Unit is used to express shipping or capacity volume of freight. Using the ISO standard of double the 20-foot shipping container (i.e. TEU – Twenty-Foot Equivalent Unit) as a means of measurement, FEUs further summarise a general sense of freight traffic moving through major shipping ports commonly reported by government or industry. A FEU is an approximate measure of two containerized cargo units (20 ft. long * 8 ft. wide container), which does not account for container height. An FEU is generally the amount of freight carried by a standard 18-wheel tractor-trailer hauling a 48′ trailer.
- Fragile Area
An area of land or water which has unusual or significant flora, fauna, geological or similar features of scientific, ecological or educational interest.
Dividing areas used by wild-life for habitat with land uses or development into areas that are too small or lack all of the needed features to continue to serve as habitat for specific species.
A divided arterial highway designed for unimpeded flow of large traffic volumes, have controlled access, and grade separation from intersecting roads.
- Freight Analysis FrameworkFAF
Federal freight transportation data integration project, obtaining data from various sources to estimate and forecast freight activity among states, regions, and major international gateways.
- Fringe Parking
Refers to any designated parking facility located outside a Central Business District (CBD) or other commercial activity center.
- Frontage Road
A road abutting a limited-access highway that provides a means of access between the highway and local roads.
The minimum distance that a building or structure may be located from the front of a property, often measured from the Street Line.
- FTA Section 5307
Grant program for capital and operating assistance in urban areas with populations greater than 50,000.
- FTA Section 5309
Grant for capital programs such as buses and bus facilities.
- FTA Section 5310
Grant program to states for assisting private non-profit groups in meeting the transportation needs of the elderly and persons with disabilities.
- FTA Section 5317
New Freedom Program. Grant program to encourage services and facility improvements to address the transportation needs of persons with disabilities that go beyond those required by the ADA.
- Functional ClassificationFC
A Federal Highway Administration road designation scheme for rural, small urban, and urbanized areas. Functional classification defines the role that any particular road or street should play in servicing the flow of trips through a highway network. Standards for highway classification were developed during 1969-1971 using criteria and procedures specified in the 1968 National Highway Functional Classification Study Manual. The scheme may be expressed as: 1 = Rural Interstate, 2 = Rural Principle Arterial, 6 = Rural Minor Arterial, 7 = Rural Major Collector, 8 = Rural Minor Collector, 9 = Rural Local Access, 11 = Urban Interstate, 12 = Urban Other Freeway or Expressway, 14 = Urban Other Principal Arterial, 16 = Urban Minor Arterial, 17 = Urban Collector, 19 = Urban Local Access.