Flexibly-scheduled transportation services catering to special needs populations such as the elderly and disabled.


An area of land containing one or more lots under common ownership or control.

Park & Ride Facility

A parking lot designated by the state or a municipality for the purpose of commuter travel, allowing for a mode shift from automobile to transit or carpool. According to the 2004 CCMPO Park & Ride Prioritization Plan, there is a distinction between an “Intercept” (or “Satellite”) lot and a “Park & Ride” lot. A Park & Ride lot’s purpose is for car and vanpooling with potential for low frequency shuttle or transit service. It may serve multiple trip destinations. It is characterized by its suburban or rural location, a surface lot (v.s. parking structure), and low to medium capacity. The private car is the dominant method of trip collection and distribution. These facilities are implemented through public funding. The purpose of an “Intercept Lot” is to provide a less expensive parking alternative to on-site locations within activity centers or the urban core area and reduce SOV use in activity centers. These facilities may capture outgoing as well as incoming activity center traffic and serve as a transfer point from car to shuttle or transit. Characteristics include an urban/activity area fringe location, high capacity, surface or structured parking, and high frequency shuttle/transit connections to activity centers. Implementation funding is likely to come from Congressional earmarks and/or public private ventures.

Parking Accumulation

Total number of vehicles parked within a parking facility at a given time, usually during peak use.

Partial Zero Emission Vehicle

A vehicle that has zero evaporative emissions from its fuel system, has a 15 year (or at least 150,000 mile) warranty, and meets SULEV tailpipe emission standards.

Parts per Million

A measure of air pollutant concentrations.

Passenger Car Equivalents

Traffic engineering/modelling practice of converting Trucks, Buses and RV’s to cars for the purpose of Capacity or Level of Service (LOS) analyses. More information on this topic may be found in the Highway Capacity Manual (HCM).

Passenger Facility Charge

A surcharge added to the price of an airfare and used for capital improvements at airports.

Passenger Miles Traveled

1. AIR MODE: One passenger transported 1 mile; passenger-miles for one inter-airport flight are calculated by multiplying aircraft miles flow by the number of passengers carried on the flight. The total passenger-miles for all flights is the sum of passenger-miles for all inter-airport flights… 2. AUTO MODE: One passenger traveling 1 mile; e.g., one car transporting two passengers 4 miles results in 8 passenger-miles… 3. TRANSIT MODE: The total number of miles traveled by transit passengers; e.g., one bus transporting five passengers 3 miles results in 15 passenger-miles.

Passive Recreation

Recreational activities in which people participate principally as spectators (such as watching a baseball game).

Pavement Condition Index

A rating from 0-100 (with a corresponding qualitative rating from ‘Failed’ to ‘Good’), reflecting the condition or level of wear of pavement along a road segment.

Payment In Lieu of Dedication (in Lieu Payment)

The payment of cash made by a developer that is required as a substitute for the dedication of property. See Exaction.

Peak Hour Factor

PHF is used to evaluate roadway capacity. It is the ratio of of total hourly volume to the maximum 15 minute rate of flow within the hour, that is; PHF = Hourly Volume / Peak Rate of Vehicle Flow (within the hour).

Peak Oil

A term refering to the “Peak” of global petroleum production (i.e. location, extraction, and refinement of oil). Though it does not refer to petroleum depletion per se, it does consider the reduction of its finite reserves. “Peak-Oil” alludes to the ever more difficult means for extraction and supply of inexpensive oil to which the staus-quo global economy relies. It further considers the time when it requires the energy of one barrel to extract a barrel of oil.

Peak Period/Peak Hour

The time period (or specific hour) during which the roadway carries the greatest number of vehicles. Traffic impacts are typically evaluated during the morning and afternoon peak hours when the greatest numbers of motorists are traveling to and from work. It may be specified as the morning peak period (traditionally 7-9 AM) or evening (4-6 PM) peak.

Peak Spreading

A Travel Demand Forcasting modeling concept where there is a calculation of a time-of-day shift in the peak period (i.e. when the maximum amount of traffic occurs). Where many travel demand models use only PM peak hour data (anywhere from 4-6 PM), a peak-spreading travel demand model uses an entire day of data (e.g. a “Day-based model” as opposed to a “PM peak model”) to calculate this figure.

Pedestrian Environmental Factor

In traffic modeling, the PEF identifies the pedestrian and bicycle-friendly parts of the transportation network.

Pedestrian Scale

An urban development pattern where walking is a safe, convenient and interesting mode of travel that is at least as attractive as any other mode to all destinations within the area that may have the following illustrative features: 1. land uses that cater to pedestrian customers and clients, 2. continuous, smooth and wide walking surfaces that provide visibility from streets and buildings, 3. safety for pedestrians with few points where high-speed automobile traffic and pedestrians mix, 4. design features (such as storefronts, doorways, trees, bollards, awnings, outdoor seating, signs, and lighting) designed to serve those on foot, and 5. well-integrated into the public transit system.

Perception-Reaction Time

PRT outlines four distinct processes a driver must perform for roadway navigation; Detection, Identification, Decision, & Response. Where PRT varies widely among drivers, AASHTO suggests it to be 2.5 seconds (where 90% of drivers will have a PRT as fast as, or faster than 2.5 seconds). ITE suggests it is 1.0 seconds (where 85% of drivers would have as an aspect of reacting to signal timing, but it would be considerably higher for a braking response upon a highway). Other factors that influence a PRT are; age, fatigue, complexity of reaction, and alcohol.

Performance Guarantee

Financial security (such as a letter of credit, performance bond, escrow agreement, or other surety agreement) or collateral, acceptable to a government as security for a developer’s promises to the government in a development agreement or maintenance agreement.

Performance Standard

A regulation that permits an individual Land Use, Structure, Building, or Land Development to be constructed or used, so long as activity in it does not exceed maximum levels of specific Impacts on adjoining properties (such as noise, vibration; odors, air pollution; dust, dirt; glare, heat, radiation; solid waste, stormwater, traffic, and/ or visual impacts). Performance standards provide for greater flexibility in the design and use of property than do Design Standards, but they also require ongoing monitoring long after a development is constructed. In addition, because remedies to correct problems identified by the failure to comply with a performance standard must be retrofitted, they may be more expensive than initial designs that prevent problems by complying with design standards.

Permitted Use (Permitted by Right of Use)

A Land Use that does not require a special action by an Appropriate Municipal Panel before a Zoning Permit is issued.

Person Trip

The movement of a person from an origin to a destination. A carpool carrying three people from origin-to-destination make one vehicle trip, its occupants together have made three person trips.

Personal Rapid Transit

An energy-efficient, on-demand, guided route, mass-transit system, utilizing small, independent vehicles (e.g. Podcars).

Phased Development

Required timing or other limitation on a particular development under the authority of a Bylaw to avoid or mitigate any undue Adverse Impact on existing or planned community facilities or services. See 24 VSA 4422.

Piggyback Service

A rail and truck combination service where a shipper loads a truck trailer, a truck delivers it to a rail terminal where it is loaded on a flatcar. The railroad then hauls the Trailer-on-Flatcar (TOFC) to a destination terminal, where it is offloaded and trucked to the consignee.

Place of Assembly

A term used by this Plan to describe a Community Facility where people gather to engage in an activity together.

Planned Residential Development

A type of Planned Unit Development that provides for a mixture of housing types or densities and typically involves Cluster Development.

Planned Unit Development

24 VSA 4303 (19): One or more lots, tracts, or parcels of land to be developed as a single entity, the plan for which may propose any authorized combination of density or intensity transfers or increases, as well as the mixing of land uses. The plan, as authorized, may deviate from bylaw requirements that are otherwise applicable to the area in which it is located with respect to lot size, bulk, or type of dwelling or building, use, density, intensity, lot coverage, parking, required common open space, or other standards. See 24 VSA 4417.

Planning Area

An area designated by this Plan where particular Policies recommended by this Plan are applicable.

Planning Commission

The official body that prepares a Comprehensive Plan. This Plan uses the term to mean the Chittenden County Regional Planning Commission. See 24 VSA 4341 to 4346. A municipal planning commission is authorized also to prepare bylaws and studies for adoption by the Legislative Body and to perform other functions. See 24 VSA 4321 to 4328, 4384, 4460, and 4463.

Planning Funds

Funds intended for planning purposes only. Such funds are intended to be exclusive of design or engineering of transporation projects, as well as operations or right-of-way acquisitions. Planning funds may however, be used for project scoping.


A drawing (or set of drawings) depicting details of a proposed development submitted by a developer to determine if the proposed Land Development will comply with the requirements of a Bylaw. The bylaw typically requires the plat to have a certain format and to show certain information.

Police Power

The power of government to regulate the activities of private citizens (including the use of property) for the purpose of protecting the public health, safety, welfare, and morals.


Any goal, objective, strategy, or action that is recommended in a Comprehensive Plan or a Special Plan as a guide for subsequent decision making.

Policy Plan

A special type of Comprehensive Plan or Special Plan that has the basic purpose of identifying Policies to be used as general guidance for making a wide range of more specific decisions and actions.

Population Pyramid

A special type of graph that illustrates the proportions of an area’s population who are in different age cohorts for both men and women.

Portland Cement Concrete

Portland Cement Concrete is a durable, but complex substance commonly refered to as “concrete”.

Preliminary Engineering

Project development phase in which project design is determined.

Preliminary Plat

A Plat that depicts the design of a proposed Subdivision and is submitted for the purpose of obtaining an initial approval of the general features and characteristics of the proposal. Such approval authorizes the developer to submit a Final Plat.

Primary Agricultural Soils

Soils that have a potential for growing food and forage crops, are sufficiently well drained to allow sowing and harvesting with mechanized equipment, are well supplied with plant nutrients or highly responsive to the use of fertilizer, and have few limitations for cultivation or limitations which may be easily overcome. In order to qualify as primary agricultural soils, the average slope of the land containing such soils does not exceed 15%, and such land is of a size capable of supporting or contributing to an economic agricultural operation. If a tract of land includes other than primary agricultural soils, only the primary agricultural soils shall be affected by criteria relating specifically to such soils. The NRB’s Land Use Panel has adopted Rule 80 to preserve primary agricultural soils.

Principal Building

The Building in which the Principal Use on a Lot is conducted. See Accessory Building or Structure.

Principal Use

The single dominant or main Land Use on a Lot. See Accessory Use.

Procedural Due Process

This form of the constitutional right of Due Process requires government to use procedures that are fundamentally fair when it administers laws that take or deny a person’s life, liberty, or property (usually that the procedures must have features such as notice, opportunity for the person to be heard, and clearly established and impartial decision making rules).

Professional Traffic Operations Engineer

The Professional Traffic Operations Engineers (PTOE) certification is accredited by the National Commission for Certifying Agencies (NCCA). This certification requires that the holder be a licensed professional engineer if he or she practices in the United States, Canada or any other country that provides governmental licensing of engineers.

Project Definition Team

Comprised of various VTrans department heads who review transportation projects.

Project Development Process

Otherwise known as “Scoping”, the Project Development life-cycle of a transportation project generally has several steps: 1. Local Concerns Meeting. 2. Data Collection. 3. Alternatives Development. 4. Alternatives Presentation Meeting. 5. Alternatives Selection. 6. Report Preparation. 7. Report Acceptance by the State DOT (i.e. VTrans) Project Definition Team (PDT).


A prediction based on applying a mathematical formula that describes the pattern of past change in the predicted measure so that it also describes future change.

Property Damage Only

A reportable crash, which does not result in any fatalities or noteworthy injuries.

Public Hearing

A formal procedure conducted to elicit testimony and evidence so that a govern-mental body may make factual findings used to determine if a proposed development satisfies conditions or standards specified by a bylaw.

Public Notice

Notice to the general public and/or to specific persons informing them of a public hearing or a public meeting that meets statutory requirements for form and timeliness. 24 VSA (21): The form of notice prescribed by sections 24 VSA 4444, 4449, or 4464, as the context requires.

Public Nuisance

Something that endangers the health or safety of the public or is offensive to the senses of an ordinary person.

Public-Private Partnerships

Contractual arrangements between government agencies and private-sector entities to finance transportation projects.

Public Safety Answering Pont

A facility that receives emergency calls (such as E-911) and dispatches public safety services.

Public Service Board

The regulatory agency responsible for reviewing proposed utilities and their rights-of-way (the Section 248 process).

Purchase of Development Rights

The acquisition of development rights by a municipality to carry out the purposes of Chapter 117. See 24 VSA 4431.